X-ray is what is it? How is radiography of the spine, joints, various organs?
Radiography is a specific type of investigation of the internal systems and organs of the human body. When it is carried out, a projection of the study area onto a film or onto special paper is created. X-rays contribute to this. On the basis of such a projection, a specialist can draw certain conclusions.
X-ray is the first method of medical imaging. It allows you to get images of organs and tissues for their research during the life of the patient.
X-ray is a diagnostic method that was discovered by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895. He registered the ability of X-rays to darken a photographic plate.
Description of the diagnostic method
What is the basis radiography? This study is made possible by the high penetrating power of X-rays, which are created by the sensor of a special device.
Such radiation passes through the tissues of the human body. At the same time, it not only ionizes cells, but also lingers in them. The amount of such presence of X-rays in the tissues is different. This allows the black-and-white image of the studied area to appear on the film. More radiopaque is bone tissue. That is why in the pictures of her image appears in bright colors. Dark areas of the film reflect soft tissue. These zones absorb X-rays very badly.
It is clear that radiography is the study of three-dimensional objects. However, on the film, all the images are flat. In connection with this, pictures are made at least in 2 projections. This allows you to accurately locate the site of the pathology.
Advantages of the technique
What are the benefits of radiography of organs? They are as follows:
- ease of conducting research;
- wide availability of the method;
- no need (in most cases) of special patient preparation;
- relatively low cost (except for research, the results of which are obtained in digital form);
- the absence of an operator-dependency, which contributes to the consideration of the data obtained by experts at consultations.
Negatives of the technique
Despite the fact that radiographic studies are widespread in modern medicine, they still have some drawbacks:
- the resulting image is “frozen”, which greatly complicates the diagnosis of the functioning of internal organs;
- X-rays have a harmful ionizing effect on the human body;
- the results obtained are of low informational content, if we compare them with the latest tomographic methods;
- in studies of soft tissues there is a need to use special contrasting substances.
Thanks to the discovery of X-ray radiation, medicine has managed to make a significant breakthrough in diagnosing a huge number of diseases,which, before the discovery of the German physicist, were revealed only at a late stage, which made it difficult or impossible to cure the malady.
Today, radiography can be done at most clinics and hospitals where special equipment is available. With the help of the study, the diagnosis is clarified as soon as possible and the necessary treatment plan is drawn up.
In addition, the doctor sends his patients on an x-ray in order for them to undergo a routine examination. Sometimes it helps to diagnose serious pathologies in the very early stages of their development. The most famous and common type of this study is fluorography. The purpose of its implementation lies in the possibility of early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
There are various methods of X-ray examination, which differ among themselves by the method of fixing the resulting image. So, allocate:
1. Classical radiography. It allows you to get an image using direct ionizing rays on the film.
2. Fluorography. When applying this type of technique, the image gets on the monitor screen, from which it is printed on a small format film.
3. Digital X-ray.The result of this study is a black and white image. The picture is on digital media.
4. Electro X-ray. In this study, the image falls on a special plate, and then transferred to the paper.
5. Teleroentgenography. This study involved a special telesystem that displays the image on the TV screen.
6. X-ray. With this technique, the desired zone can be viewed on the fluorescent screen.
Most accurately reflects the picture of the study area digital radiography. This technique greatly facilitates diagnosis. And this allows you to more accurately select a treatment regimen.
Object of study
Depending on which organ or system is to be diagnosed, the following research options are distinguished:
- X-ray of the spinal column and limbs;
- teeth (intraoral, extraoral, orthopantomography);
- mammary gland (mammography);
- colon (irrigoscopy);
- duodenum and stomach (gastroduodenography);
- gallbladder and biliary tract (cholecystography and choleography);
- uterus (metrosalpinography).
On radiography, as well as other x-ray examinations, the doctor directs his patients. He does this only if there are indications, of which there are a great many. The main ones are:
- diagnostics of pathologies of internal organs and the skeleton;
- verification of the effectiveness of the treatment and the determination of its negative effects;
- control of installed tubes and catheters.
Before referring a patient for an X-ray, the doctor must find out if the patient has serious reasons for not going through this study. And it can not be carried out in the following pathologies and conditions:
- active forms of tuberculosis;
- disorders of the thyroid gland;
- the general serious condition of the patient;
- pregnancy (for women who are expecting a child, X-rays are carried out only on the condition of vital indications);
- breastfeeding (in cases where it is necessary to introduce a contrast agent);
- renal and heart failure (contraindication also acts when contrasting);
- Allergies to substances with iodine content (if necessary, the introduction of contrast elements).
How to read the obtained projections of radiography? This can be done only by an expert with the necessary qualifications. Such a work cannot be done by an unaware person in this area.
Those images that are the result of X-ray, are negatives with light areas of more dense structures of the body and dark, which indicates the presence of soft tissues in this place. Decoding each area of the body is done according to certain rules. So, when considering a chest image, the specialist should evaluate the relative position as well as the structural features of the heart, lungs and mediastinum. In addition, the clavicles and ribs are examined to identify cracks and fractures. All obtained parameters are estimated based on the patient's age.
In order to make a final diagnosis, a doctor, as a rule, is not enough one shot. To establish the presence of pathology, in addition to radiography, it is possible, based on the data of examination, survey, as well as the results of various instrumental and laboratory examination methods.
Often the doctor sends his patient to study this part of the body in case of injuries and to make the necessary diagnosis. Radiography of the spine is considered the most conservative method. For its implementation from a person does not require any prior preparation.
Radiography of the spine can provide an objective picture only in the case when it will be performed in two projections. The first picture should be taken when the patient is lying on his back. The second is lateral. This is a snapshot of the lumbosacral.
Radiography of the spine is carried out in case of pain in the back. In case of emergency, this procedure is carried out at home.
The reason for the study of the cervical spine are severe headaches, as well as dizziness during rapid neck turns. Perform such fluoroscopy in two projections. Often, in order to get more detailed information, pictures are taken through the patient’s open mouth.
The indications for performing radiography of the thoracic vertebral part are painful sensations in the chest that occur when bending or turning.A distinctive feature of this study is to take a picture in three projections: on the side, behind and in front.
In order for a radiography of the coccyx and lumbosacral department to be performed, preparatory activities will be required. First of all, this diet, which must be followed for several days (usually two) prior to the survey. It consists in excluding from the daily diet of those foods that provoke gas formation in the intestines. The patient in this case can not eat cabbage and potatoes, eat rye bread, milk and beans.
The studies themselves are performed only on an empty stomach and with a cleaned intestine. If the patient is improperly prepared, accumulations of intestinal gases that do not allow x-rays to pass through may give a vague picture of the area of study.
The result of the performed scanning will be a snapshot in which a specialist will be able to see the spinal pathologies that a person has. These are osteochondrosis and vertebral hernia, spinal tuberculosis, its curvature, etc.
Often the doctor is required to make a diagnosis with existing disorders of the osteo-articular apparatus. For this, the patient is prescribed radiography of the joints. Only in the pictures obtained in the course of such a study, you can see the following signs of pathology:
- calcium deposits;
- bone growths occurring on the edge of the cartilage;
- violation of the compliance surfaces of the joints.
Radiography helps the doctor to determine the existing problems for an accurate diagnosis, as well as to establish the type of treatment and make its plan.
Radiography may be prescribed by a doctor:
- ankle joint;
- knee joint;
- hip joint;
- elbow joint;
- shoulder joint;
- temporomandibular joint.
X-ray of the stomach
This method of research allows you to identify numerous diseases of this important organ of digestion, as well as the presence of its functional disorders.
A stomach X-ray helps to determine:
- peptic ulcer disease;
- malignant and benign neoplasms;
- diverticula (protrusion of the wall of this organ in the form of a bag).
Radiography of the stomach helps determine its size and position, the integrity of the wall and many other parameters.In order to investigate this hollow organ, a contrasting procedure is required. As a substance that does not transmit x-rays, barium salts suspended in water are used. Sometimes the contrast is gas.
This diagnostic method, in addition to general indications, is applied to a certain category of the population. These are, for example, people who constantly experience the conditions of harmful production: bricklayers and miners, employees of chemical industry enterprises, etc.
Radiography of the lungs allows you to identify:
- pneumonia of the lungs;
- hydrotax (accumulation in the pulmonary tract of fluid with liver cirrhosis, ascites, and heart failure);
- pneumothorax (mechanical damage to the lung tissue);
- chronic diseases (atypical pneumonia, silicosis, tuberculosis, lupus erythematosus, etc.).
Only a radiography will allow time to recognize the beginning of the above pathologies and select the necessary course of treatment.