White spots on the leaves of cucumbers. Diseases of cucumbers. Prevention and treatment
Cucumber is a very common and loved us vegetable, which can be found in every garden. When growing cucumbers, the gardener is faced with various problems: the fruits begin to wilt, whites appear curled and so on. To avoid all these problems, you need to carefully study how to care for vegetables, how to process cucumbers and much more. All this you will read in this article.
Important Facts to Know
The first thing you need to know before planting cucumbers is that the vegetable comes from the tropics, and therefore loves heat, humidity and sunlight. Of course, they can grow in the shade, but do not count on a rich harvest. Vegetable requires loose soil with an average level of acidity. For this purpose, the bed chosen for cucumbers in the fall should be dug, and in the spring it should be leveled and fertilized with manure or droppings.It is also very good to plant cucumbers in the garden where corn, potatoes or tomatoes were grown before. Cucumbers can not be watered with cold water. It is necessary to monitor the acidity of the soil - there will be no harvest in acidic and non-fertilized soil. Temperature drops too badly affect the vegetable: it becomes bitter. And at temperatures below 11 degrees, cucumbers do not grow at all.
Growing cucumbers is possible with seedlings or seeds. If a seedless method has been chosen, then the seeds need to be prepared by putting them in a wet, warm place so that they swell and germinate. You can plant seeds only when the soil warms up to 150. It is recommended to place the seeds in the hole not flat, but rib. As for the distance, then between the seeds need to retreat about 20 centimeters, and the rows should be at a meter distance. The seeds can germinate on the 4-12th day, depending on the temperature.
In the warm shoots will appear much faster. If the seedling method is chosen, the seeds should be planted about a month before planting in the ground. Planting cucumbers made only in the heated land. Recommend before planting seeds or seedlings in dug holes put stale manure, hay, sprinkle with earth and pour it all.
Cucumbers: open ground (care)
The main condition for the proper care of cucumbers is regular watering. It is best to conduct watering by drip irrigation. This allows moisture to flow directly to the root, reduces the amount of water and does not provoke the growth of weeds. Water cucumbers need water at room temperature or warm, so running water will not work. It is recommended to prepare for this purpose a container in which the water will stand all day and warm up.
Watering is necessary depending on the condition of the soil. Too frequent watering can damage the crop, cucumbers will begin to develop stalks and lash, instead of bearing fruit, or they may appear white spots on the leaves. In very hot weather, watering is needed more often, otherwise the leaves will wither. You can freshen up the leaves with a shower of cool water. It will wash away the dust, increase moisture and photosynthesis improve. If the leaves are still sluggish, you should pierce the ground with a fork, so that the water penetrates to the root system.
Can be watered in three runs, one watering at a time per well; wait until the water soaks into the ground, and pour it over and over again. Also, besides watering, it is important to regularly weed the beds from weeds.They do not allow the plant to fully develop and create unnecessary shading.
Top dressing of cucumbers
It is necessary to feed cucumbers every ten days. The solution is prepared in proportion to 30 grams of saltpeter and a liter of mullein per ten liters of water. When the cucumbers begin to bloom, 50 grams of potassium salt and 50 grams of superphosphate are added to this solution. The expense will be one liter of top dressing on four bushes. It is important to feed cucumbers in the evening so that the solution that gets on the leaves does not lead to burns in sunny weather. If the solution still got on some leaves, then you need to wash them with water, pouring watering cans. After feeding in each bush you need to pour the ground, which replaces the loosening. The root system of cucumbers is close to the surface and loosening the ground can damage the roots. Therefore, loosen the soil only between the rows.
Growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
Planting cucumbers in the greenhouse is done when the ground is warmed up properly under glass or film. Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse is a rather troublesome process. It is necessary to carefully monitor the temperature, because the cucumber does not like sudden daily temperature differences.Be sure to maintain the humidity inside the greenhouse by irrigation. Better to do it with rainwater.
If the weather is sunny and hot, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse. Cucumber does not like drafts, therefore, it is necessary to air carefully. It is very important to allow bees to pollinate flowers. Here will help folk remedies cucumber. Bees are not very willing to fly into closed spaces, and this can significantly reduce the yield. In order to attract the attention of insects, cucumber leaves in a greenhouse are sprinkled with sweet syrup. Between the rows of cucumbers you need to put fertilizer, which cucumbers really need, especially at an early stage of development. Watering should be done not under the root, but on specially made hollows near the roots. In this case, you need to water only with warm water, and it should be done in the middle of the day. It is best to use drip irrigation in the greenhouse.
Types of greenhouses
For those who want to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, it is worth saying that the latter can be completely different. The base of the greenhouse can be made of metal, plastic or wood. You can sheathe glass, plastic or film.The main thing is that the material allows sunlight to freely penetrate the greenhouse.
The metal frame will last the longest, but its construction will cost the owner a lot of money. The wooden frame is cheaper, but it will not last very long due to high humidity, even if it is treated with special means. There is also a plastic frame. This material is chosen most often because of its low cost and ease of care: it does not need to be painted, impregnated, etc. But the plastic can be deformed in case of strong heat.
Sizes of greenhouses
As for the size, the ideal for the greenhouse are the dimensions of three and a half to two and a half meters. Of course, the dimensions may be different, but do not recommend doing it more than six meters in length. In such a greenhouse, the care and processing of cucumbers will be more complicated. It is better to divide it into several sectors. The doors must be wide enough so that it can be passed into it with inventory and ventilated if necessary. If you follow all the recommendations, you don’t have to observe how white spots or branches on the leaves of cucumbers dried up and the leaves twisted.
Pest Dangerous to Cucumber
- Spider mite: sucks the sap of plants, white spots appear on the leaves of cucumbers, and they dry up.
- Gourd aphid: placed on the underside of the leaves, which leads to their twisting and drying.
- Sprouting fly: penetrates the stem, it fades completely, or the plant grows very weak.
- The whitefly: sucks the juice from the leaves, produces fungal spores, from which the leaves turn black and dry.
- Cucumber mosquito: is more common in greenhouses, affects the stems and root of the plant, which begin to rot.
The general rules for protection against pests are regular weeding of cucumbers, attentive regular inspection of plants and timely treatment with appropriate preparations.
What is sick cucumbers?
Gardeners who grow cucumbers from year to year are well acquainted with all the pests that threaten a good harvest. But not only insects can be the reason why there are white spots on cucumber leaves. Cucumbers can also become a victim of a disease that affects not only the leaves, but also the fruits and seeds of the plant and leads to its death.
Diseases of cucumbers are the following:
- Anthracnose: one of the reasons that white spots appeared on the leaves of cucumbers. They become like burnt ones and eventually dry out completely.
- White rot: occurs more often in greenhouses, affects the whole plant, it becomes soft and as if covered with mucus.
- Mealy dew: most often it is the answer to the question of why white spots appeared on the leaves of cucumbers. What to do with these spots - you can find in a specialty store. The leaves are as if sprinkled with flour, they dry up and the cucumber dies.
- Brown spotting: affects fruit, spreads during watering, the cucumber is covered with spots, and it can not be eaten.
- Gray rot: affects the plant stems in the form of gray mucous spots, does not allow the plant to develop, it rots and dies.
- Mosaic ordinary: appear green spots of light and dark tones on the leaves, swollen leaves, tuberosity on the fruit.
- Fusarium: occurs mainly in greenhouses, the upper part of the plant fades, then the rot sinks to the root, and the plant dies.
- Cucumber necrosis: the lack of necessary substances leads to the formation of spots on the leaves, the plant ceases to bloom, grow and die.
- Cucumber bacteriosis: affects seeds, fruits and leaves. Seeds dry up, leaves become perforated and dry, fruits become covered with ulcers, bent.
- The mosaic is light: light spots appear along the veins of the leaf, the leaf becomes yellow, the plant weakens and ceases to grow.
- Radical rot: affects the root system of the plant, spots appear on the stems, they rot and become covered with mucus, the leaves wither and the plant dies.
- Black leg: affects the root, it becomes weak, rotten and soft, leaves wither and the bush dies.
Methods of prevention and treatment
You can often read such questions of gardeners as: "Why did white spots appear on cucumber leaves, what to do if leaves began to wither, how to get rid of aphids?"
There are many ways to deal with adversity. In order to grow cucumbers without problems and get a wonderful crop, it is necessary to regularly conduct activities for the prevention of diseases. Moreover, these activities should be both technical and chemical. It is necessary to carefully remove the remnants of plants during the harvest period, the top 6-7 centimeters of the earth should be removed or replaced, disinfected the earth. It is also necessary to spray the plant for prevention. If cucumbers are grown in a greenhouse, then you need to disinfect the entire structure completely, including the frame, walls, lanes and soil.It is necessary to maintain the correct climate inside the greenhouse, so as not to give a chance to the disease to hit the plant. Much attention needs to be paid to the seeds, because many diseases are transmitted through seeds. It is usually enough to soak the seeds in a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate.
Drugs for the treatment of diseases
Despite all the mechanical procedures, the plant also needs chemical effects - both for treatment and for prevention. In specialized stores you can find any necessary drug, depending on the problem. For example, Trichodermin (used to treat root rot, wilt, powdery mildew), Pentaphage (used for seed treatment), Quadris (good for fighting powdery mildew), Topsin (for the prevention and treatment of fusarium, powdery mildew) and many other drugs.