What is the aborigine: the meaning of the word, photo
What is aboriginal? Many believe that this word means only Australia. At the same time in the imagination is a picture where in the photo the aborigines stand in a half-naked form, in a loincloth, with a ring in the nose and feathers on the head. But this opinion is not entirely correct. About who the aborigines really are, will be discussed in the article.
Aboriginal and international law
What is aboriginal in legal terms? There is no such term in international law. But by the natives are understood the people who lived on their land until the moment when immigrants from other places came. The term “indigenous peoples” is used here. Although a clear description of this concept does not exist. This is due to such reasons as:
- Aborigines settled around the world.
- Represent various races, cultures, languages, religions.
- Their social, economic and cultural life is at different stages of development.
- They have different interests, demands and aspirations.
Indigenous peoples: wording
In one of the UN special reports on discrimination, it is said that the indigenous population (aborigines) are the heirs of those groups of people who lived in a certain territory at a time when representatives of other ethnic origin and culture arrived from other countries of the world.
The aliens conquered the locals, put them in colonial dependence by conquest. Today, the existence of these peoples, as a rule, is subject to special traditions: economic, cultural, social, and long-standing customs. And this is despite the fact that the states where they live are based mainly on the national and cultural characteristics of those segments of the population that are dominant.
Studying the question of what is aboriginal, it would be advisable to consider other similar concepts. Unlike international law, where only the single phrase “indigenous peoples” is used, the Russian legislation contains such concepts as “small peoples” or “indigenous small peoples”. Close in semantics to the term "indigenous peoples" are the words "aborigines","Natives", "autochthonous", "indigenous people". But all of them are informal and do not apply in legal practice.
Proceeding from all the above, it can be concluded that the aborigines are the indigenous inhabitants of the lands who lived on them before representatives of other nations came there. They are found on all continents. For example:
- in the Far East - Evenki;
- on the Kola Peninsula and in Scandinavia - the Sami;
- in New Zealand, Maori;
- in the Americas - Indians;
- in the Polar regions of the Far East and North America - Aleuts and Eskimos.
In total, there are approximately 370 million people.
Etymology of the word
Who are the aborigines of Latia? As historians say, in ancient Italy there was a Lacius region, which was the ancestral home of the Romans. The first inhabitants of this area, according to legend, were the aborigines of Lazia. Translated from the Latin aborigines - it means "original." But this is a modern interpretation, which is not fixed in the ancient Roman sources. There are two other versions of the translation: “originating from the north” (from Rome) and “wandering, deviating”. The second option may indicate a nomadic lifestyle.
Some ancient authors noted that the aborigines were actually the first inhabitants of Latsia, others believed that they were migrants from Greece. The well-known Roman historian of the 1st century BC Guy Sallust Crisp considered the Aborigines a wild people, while other sources report that they had a monarchical structure. The historian of the third century, Mark Junian Justin attributed to the Aborigines the founder of Rome, Romulus.
From the history of indigenous peoples
From the history of the Aborigines, photos of which are given in the article, it is known that most of them (especially representatives of small nations) during the process of colonization, which lasted from the 15th to the 20th centuries, were threatened with extinction. They were treated unfairly, deprived of land, resources, the right to development and their own interests. Even if it was not about physical annihilation, the destruction of languages and culture as a whole was observed.
The recognition of the rights of small indigenous peoples in the international arena began in 1957 with the adoption of a UN resolution. Their rights were mainly environmental organizations. From the 1970s, they independently began to fight for them at the local and global level.In 1994, the United Nations established the International Day of Indigenous People, which is celebrated on August 18. In 2007, a Declaration of their Rights was adopted. Today, indigenous people participate in the UN on a permanent basis, as in other international organizations.
Despite the difference between the aborigines of different regions, which were mentioned above, they have many common features. One of them is harmonious coexistence with the environment, the presence of high ecological culture. In addition, for the majority of indigenous peoples, the experience gained in conditions of oppression and colonization by the state, the experience of powerlessness in all areas of life is common.
Indigenous peoples of Russia
Continuing to consider the question of what is aboriginal, let us turn to some statistical facts relating to our country. According to government documents, there are 47 indigenous minorities living in Russia today. According to the 2002 census, this figure is 44. Their total number is close to half a million people. This represents only 0.3% of the total population of the country.
Of these peoples, 35 have a population of 275,000, they live in 28 regions of the Russian Federation and make up 2% of the total number of inhabitants of these regions.The few of them are 13, that is, each has less than one thousand people. The largest people among these Aboriginal people are the Nenets (41 thousand), and the smallest are the Kereks (4 people).