What is a bolivar? Meaning of the word
What is a bolivar? In Russian, as in any other, there are a large number of those that come from other languages and have become an integral part of ours. Due to their foreign origin, not everyone is familiar with their true meaning. One of these words is “bolivar”. It is both personal and nominal. What does the word "bolivar" mean? Consider this question in more detail.
Answering the question about what a bolivar is, it should be noted that, despite its foreign origin, this word is very common in Russian. It has several meanings, but all came from one, the main one, which is a proper name. Simon Bolivar (with an emphasis on the second syllable) was the name of one of the main, most influential leaders and inspirers of the war for the liberation of the American colonies from European invaders.
He was born at the end of the 18th century in Colombia and became a Venezuelan national hero, a general.Under his leadership in the first third of the XIX century Venezuela, New Granada (today - the territory of Colombia and Panama) and Audiiencia Quito (now - Ecuador) were liberated from Spanish rule.
On these lands, a state of Great Colombia was created, of which Bolivar became president. Then Upper Peru was liberated. In its place was formed the Republic of Bolivia, named after this hero.
The program of Hugo Chávez
A related word to Bolivar, formed on behalf of the legendary fighter against colonialism. This concept denotes a political movement characteristic of the South American region that has a left direction. It sounds like "Bolivarism." His goal is to get rid of the influence of other countries and, first of all, the United States, which they are trying to impose.
Among the methods to achieve it is economic and political development based on popular, democratic and anti-capitalist values. The main ideologue of promoting these values in South America was Hugo Chavez, the president of Venezuela. The main directions of Bolivarism are:
- The fight against the dominance of transnational corporations for economic sovereignty.
- The priority of direct control by referendum.
- Actions aimed at eradicating corruption.
- Achieving economic self-sufficiency.
- Use of natural resources for the benefit of the entire population.
Previously, the main currency of Venezuela was a unit such as Venezolano. In 1871, a bolivar was introduced as additional money. Since 1879, it became the main currency, it was equated to the French franc, and it became equal to 100 centimo. 1 bolivar was 20 Venezolano. In January 2008, a denomination was carried out.
Recall that the denomination is a special measure carried out in connection with hyperinflation and aimed at stabilizing the national currency. After that, its face value was reduced by a factor of 1000 and received the name “Bolivar Fuerte”, that is, strong. However, the old name was left on the banknotes, and in 2012 it returned to the official name of the monetary unit.
Venezuelan coins of various denominations, which were made of several metals, carry the name "Bolivar". So, at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century there existed silver and gold money, then they were replaced by nickel and copper-nickel.
Today, money from multi-layered steel has a similar design, on the back they have a portrait of Simon Bolivar. It is surrounded by a heptagon, which is a symbol of the stars of the national Venezuelan flag. On the other side is the coat of arms and the name of the country.
The meaning of the word "bolivar" is not limited to this. So called hat with a wide brim, having the shape of a cylinder. The fashion for them in Russia began in the tenths of the XIX century, and they reached the peak of their unusually wide popularity in the twenties.
This can be judged by the notes in the journals of that time, released in 1825, which says that the “bolivar” hats, sewn from black satin, are being replaced, although wide-brimmed, but from white groundholes. It should be noted that not only men's hats were so called, but also women's.
An interesting fact is that, judging by the portraits, Simon Bolivar did not wear wide-brimmed hats. He, in accordance with the fashion of his time, walked in double-headed headdresses. There is a version according to which wide-brimmed hats were worn by villagers who were supporters of the general in the struggle against Spanish colonization.
"Wearing a wide bolivar"
This hat is associated with the name of A.S. Pushkin. His biographers report that the great poet was not a stranger to fashion trends in his wardrobe and in appearance as a whole. In the novel "Eugene Onegin" he wrote: "You can be a practical person and think about the beauty of the nails."
In the same work, describing the appearance of the main character, who was a famous dandy, Alexander Sergeevich said: "Wearing a wide bolivar, Onegin goes to the boulevard." Interestingly, Pushkin in the notes to the novel gives the author's explanation concerning this headdress. He writes that this hat bears the name of the liberator of the countries of Latin America, which characterizes the poet as a very educated and progressive person, which he was.
When answering the question of what a bolivar is, it would not be superfluous to recall the story of O’Henry (William Sydney Porter), a famous American comic writer who worked in the late XVIII - early XIX century. Although his story “The Roads We Choose” seems seemingly playful at first glance, it’s in name and, in fact, carries philosophical reflections on the relationships between people in general and businessmen in particular.
In this ingenious literary sketch, Bolivar is the name of a horse, sitting on whose back two friends could have escaped. But one of them decided differently, he decided that it was better to save him alone. In connection with this act, as his excuse, he uttered a phrase that became winged: "Bolivar will not sustain two."
At the end of the story, this hero becomes a major businessman and makes it his life motto in relations with partners. This expression can be rephrased as "Every man for himself."
Other objects of the name of the Latin American hero
Concluding the story about what a bolivar is, it should be noted that the liberator of the countries of Latin America is such a popular figure all over the world that football clubs, orchestras, geographical objects are named after him. Here are some of them:
- Youth Symphony Orchestra of Venezuela.
- Bolivian football club - one of the most titled.
- Bolivar (Fabian Guedes) is a Brazilian footballer who has taken on a pseudonym associated with his leadership qualities.
- One of the Colombian departments.
- Southeast Venezuela.
- Ecuadorian province.
- The complex of oil fields in Venezuela.
- The capital of the state of the same name.
- Spanish municipality.