What fertilizers are needed for cucumbers? Fertilizers for cucumbers in open ground and in the greenhouse. Potash, nitrogen, mineral fertilizers for cucumbers
Cucumber is considered the most demanding crop fertility. For a high yield of 30-35 kg / sq. m and more must comply with several conditions. On the one hand, the soil should contain a large number of nutrient compounds. However, the culture does not tolerate a high concentration of elements in the substrate. Therefore, to ensure balance, fertilizing of cucumbers is carried out. Consider further the main types of them.
Nitrogen fertilizer for cucumbers
They are necessary for culture at almost all stages of its development.Nutrient compounds are particularly relevant at the beginning of the growing season, since they contribute to the formation of leaves. It should also be remembered that the use of fertilizers for cucumbers can adversely affect the condition of the fruit. For example, ammonium nitrate is undoubtedly useful for culture. However, it can accumulate in fruits as nitrates, which are harmful to humans. Choosing fertilizer for cucumbers in the greenhouse, we should focus on those in which there is NO3. They can be used with proper drip irrigation, and when spraying. If, at the beginning of growth, an excessive amount of potassium and phosphorus is added to the soil, and the N content is not enough, this will negatively affect the culture. Plants will be large, with a large number of male flowers and a small number of small ovaries. Subsequent application of the necessary fertilizer for cucumbers in the greenhouse will not correct the situation.
This element is needed in a small amount of cucumbers. However, he must act constantly. Phosphorus ensures normal growth and functioning of the root system, and rapid growth of green mass.The main thing is to add phosphoric fertilizers in time and correctly. For cucumbers, it is important to obtain the necessary nutrients for timely and abundant flowering. Phosphorus also ensures the normal setting and ripening of fruits.
Potash fertilizer for cucumbers
Cultures urgently need such mixtures, as they ensure the movement of nutrients from the root system to the rest of the plant. Potassium contributes to normal vegetative growth and fruiting. It is during active ripening that it is necessary to increase its quantity. At the same time, nitrogen fertilizers for cucumbers are applied in smaller volumes.
Cucumbers do not tolerate chlorine. It is often present in nutrient mixtures. However, potassium necessary for cucumbers is used in conjunction with chlorine (KCl). In order to avoid harming the plants, the mixture is brought under the autumn digging. With an open top in the greenhouse, all chlorine will be washed off with snow and rain. By spring planting, the desired element will remain in the soil.
Mineral fertilizers for cucumbers are made in different quantities. It depends on the quality of spring and autumn digging, soil characteristics.In addition, you should pay attention to the condition of the leaves. It is not necessary to make a mixture immediately under all the plants. It is advisable to feed a few bushes and look at their condition. If after a few days they feel good, then you can make a mixture under the other plantations.
Excess or shortage?
To determine which fertilizers are needed for cucumbers, periodic diagnostics should be carried out. There are a number of signs that indicate which element is in abundance and which is lacking in culture. To determine what fertilizers are needed for cucumbers, you can, guided by the following simple instructions:
- Plant growth ceased, a bluish tinge appeared on the young leaves. These signs indicate a lack of phosphorus.
- The leaves brightened and diminished, the fruits began to thicken and shorten, and their color, regardless of the variety, became pale green. In this case, not enough nitrogen.
- Growth slowed down, a light green border appeared on the edge of the old leaves, which began to creep between the veins to the middle, the edges turn inward, and the fruits become pear-shaped.All these signs indicate that potash fertilizers are needed.
For cucumbers planted in unprotected soil, a different ratio of necessary elements is required. It depends on the condition of the soil, as well as the period in which they are applied.
Recommended nutrient content
Fertilizers for cucumbers in open ground should be balanced. To ensure normal development and growth should know the recommended number of necessary elements. So, per one plant consumed:
- 23 g of nitrogen.
- 19 - calcium.
- 14 - phosphorus.
- 5 - magnesium.
- 58 - potassium.
Per kilogram of fruit, you must:
- 2.64 g of nitrogen.
- 2.19 - calcium.
- 6.6 - potassium.
- 1.55 - phosphorus.
- 0.57 - magnesium.
Culture is characterized by a long period of absorption of nutrients. But during the formation of the fruits, each bush consumes a large amount of K2O (up to 1 g) and N (up to 0.6 g). In this regard, the lack of compounds leads to a sharp decrease in yield. Choosing fertilizer for cucumbers in open ground, it is necessary to take into account the needs of plants at a particular stage of the cycle.
2-3 days before planting in the greenhouse, it is advisable to sprinkle the seedlings with a solution of trace elements and add the nutrient mixture.So it will be easier for plants to survive the change of conditions and stress. For cultivation in greenhouses, you can prepare a mixture of manure and sod land. For preliminary composting it is prepared as follows:
They shift 10-15 centimeter layers of turf with manure (30 cm each) and sprinkle with phosphate flour. In case of increased soil acidity, lime is added. Burts should be made at least 2 meters high. Every two months, the compost is shoveled by pouring slurry.
Layering fertilizers are recommended in greenhouses just commissioned. Compost or manure in the calculation of 25-40 kg per sq. m and dug up to a depth of 20-25 cm. At the loosened mixture make horse (fresh) manure with sawdust. Such a pillow will serve as drainage. In addition, it contributes to better nutrition of the root system. A composted mixture with a thickness of 25 cm is placed on top of the prepared layer. After that, fertilizers are applied to cucumbers. The main charge includes a full dose of the phosphorus mixture. The rest are made in the following quantities:
- Nitrogen - 0.5 doses.
- Magnesium - 0.5.
- Potash - 0.75.
The remaining parts should be made later.
When introducing fertilizers into the main dressing, it is necessary to pay attention to the amount of ammonia nitrogen in protected soil. At a young age, culture is very sensitive to its increased content. Its share should not exceed 25-30% of the total nitrogen volume. This is especially important in winter, in heated structures. With an insufficient amount of light and carbohydrates, the plantations do not use ammonia to form protein compounds and amino acids. In such cases, fertilizer should be used for cucumbers in nitrate form.
Growing cucumbers in protected soil, be sure to carry out dressing. On a limited amount of land it is difficult to retain a large amount of nutrients. For example, K and N are washed out very quickly. Adding loose materials requires a lot of nitrogen to decompose organic compounds and nourish microorganisms. Phosphorus can be excluded from the mixtures by adding it only to the main dressing. This is especially true for soils that have been used for years. Blending is best done in the morning.The first feeding is carried out a month after disembarkation. If there are signs of insufficient amounts of iron and magnesium, spraying is necessary. To do this, prepare a 0.1% solution of Mg sulfate and a 0.1% solution of Fe citrate (or also its sulfate).
Cultivation on unprotected soil
Culture develops well in fertile soil. On the sod-podzolic soil of the plant should be planted in the second year after making a large number of organic mixtures. It is not recommended to plant cucumbers in fresh manure. Although it can be made in the fall in the process of digging in the amount of 5-10 kg / m2. Mineral fertilizer can be replaced with a mixture of simple ones: 20 g of urea, ammophos, or double superphosphate, 30 g of potassium magnesium and 20 g of potassium sulfate. This mixture is designed for 1 square. m
When planting seedlings, two feedings should be made with chicken manure or mullein. The first is done 14 days after the emergence of shoots. The second feeding is carried out two days before planting in unprotected soil. After this recharge is carried out every 10-15 days. Fertilizers for cucumbers should contain many N before flowering. Subsequently, plants need phosphorus in large quantities.Fertilizing can be carried out with complex fertilizers: nitroammofosk and Stimul-1 (15 g each) or 30 g of fertilizer garden mixture with trace elements without chlorine per 10 liters of mullein. However, it is not always possible to prepare such a mixture. In this case, it is necessary to increase the volume of mineral fertilizers by one and a half times.
In its active phase and at its attenuation, cucumbers need K and N. Very productive feeding of plants with complex soluble mixtures (per 1 m220 grams). This dressing is especially good on light soils, where the culture may lack magnesium. Phosphorus is needed to prolong the fruiting period. Superphosphate is applied before rain or watering. Best of all is the second way. With the optimal amount of phosphorus cucumbers also need potassium nitrate without chlorine.
If the complex mixture is not available, several simple ones can be combined. 10 l of water: 10 g of potassium sulphate or 20 g of kalimagnezii, 10 g of urea. The resulting mixture is designed for 1 square. m. All irrigation is allowed to combine with the addition of wood ash. It is rich in calcium and potassium. One hundred liters of water need from 40 to 100 g of ash.Feeding with such a solution can be carried out after rain.
A nettle infusion also has a beneficial effect on the culture. Grass should endure a week. Infusion diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 7. Plants watered with a solution every other day. When a cloudy weather is established during the growing season, foliar top dressing with urea is recommended (20 grams per 10 liters of water).