Water resources of the world: characterization and use
Water is one of the indispensable sources of the existence of any living being on Earth. With the development of new technologies, the need for it is growing every day.
Earth's Water Resources: General Description
The water resources of the world (hydrosphere) are the totality of all possible sources of water on planet Earth. It is no secret that any sphere of vital activity requires water components. Statistics show that the volume of the hydrosphere is quite large - 1.3 billion km. However, this figure does not reflect the sufficiency of water in the world, since fresh drinking water plays a strategic role, and its amount varies from 2 to 2.6%.
The water resources of the world (fresh) include ice blocks of Antarctica and the Arctic, natural lakes and mountain rivers. However, to get full access to these sources, unfortunately, is impossible.
The problem of water resources of the world
Currently, only a few countries in the world are sufficiently supplied with water, and according to statistical data, about 89 countries generally suffer from water deficit.The role of water is difficult to overestimate, and its poor quality is the cause of 31% of diseases on Earth. The problems of the world's water resources should not be ignored by any state of the world, but should be solved promptly and collectively.
Every year the need for water increases, it is directly related to population growth and economic development. Many states are now introducing new methods of obtaining water, its purification, enrichment with minerals. Unfortunately, water accumulates very slowly, and therefore belongs to the group of non-recoverable resources.
Water use in the world
Water resources on planet Earth are extremely uneven. If the equatorial regions (Brazil, Peru, Indonesia) and the northern temperate zones are provided with water above the norm, then all tropical areas (constituting 63% of the total area of the globe) experience severe water shortages.
The use of water resources in the world is usually stable. The largest percentage of water is in agriculture, heavy industry (metallurgy, oil refining, automotive, chemical and woodworking industries). Modern thermal power plants are no less competitive with these sources of use.Despite their cheapness, the production of energy by this method not only significantly reduces the amount of target water, but also pollutes and renders water unsuitable for consumption in nearby reservoirs.
World Water Council
The World Water Council was established in 1996 with the support of 50 countries and 300 international organizations. This is a universal international platform whose main goal is to solve global water problems. To attract the attention of the international community, the Council periodically holds the World Water Forum. Every three years (May 22), members of this organization put forward competent specialists and professors who propose new methods for solving present and future problems, demonstrate available indicators and other information about water resources.
Polluted water is a source of infectious diseases.
The water resources of the world are various sources: mountains, oceans, rivers, glaciers. The absolute majority of them offer low quality water due to natural and anthropogenic factors:
- run-off of used (polluted) waters into rivers and seas;
- use of fresh water for domestic needs (washing cars in water);
- release of petroleum products and chemicals into water bodies;
- imperfect water purification system;
- inaction of the environmental authorities;
- lack of financial resources.
Only 4% of the world's water resources are polluted from natural sources. This is usually the emission of aluminum from the earth's crust.
Polluted water is a source of infectious diseases.
Clean fresh water resources of the countries of the world in nature currently exist in practically inaccessible sources (glaciers, mountain lakes), and therefore people more often resort to purifying plain river water. However, if it is poorly processed, the risk of an infectious disease is extremely high. Dirty water is a source of severe, intractable diseases such as typhoid, tuberculosis, cholera, dysentery, glanders, etc. During the 18th and 19th centuries, most of the terrible pandemics began with the use of dirty water.
The statistics in this matter is rather disappointing, since about half of humanity suffers from bad water. The inhabitants of Africa and Central Asia not only do not have access to fresh water, but also have no opportunity to clean up the existing ones.
World Water Day
World Water Day was introduced by the UN in 1993 and is celebrated annually on May 22.In honor of this day, the UN Secretary-General holds various forums, meetings, round tables, and meetings on global water issues. Also on May 22, UN statistics show new data on the growth or reduction of water availability in various countries of the world (the geography of the world's water resources).
Every year, a new topic is selected that is of most concern to international consumers. These include questions about the amount of water in modern water basins, water diseases, water disasters, water scarcity, fresh water sources, water supply problems in cities.
Ways to overcome the deficit
The characteristic of the world's water resources shows that this resource is non-renewable, therefore the majority of civilized countries of the world are trying to use water rationally in various ways. The ways to overcome the water deficit include:
1. Establishment of meters that will correctly and accurately calculate the amount of water used.
2. Creating a solid information base, disseminating information about the water deficit in society through the media, journalism, etc.
3. Improve the sewer system.
4. Savings.Simple rules for saving water for the population can help to significantly reduce its costs for more useful purposes.
5. Creating a reservoir for fresh water.
6. Introduction of sanctions for violation of water legislation.
7. Saline desalination or detoxification with dirty water chemicals. If earlier aggressive substances of the chemical industry were used to kill germs, now, as a rule, harmless compounds of iodine or chlorine are common.
Water resources play a significant role in the life of modern society. Its quality, quantity, physical condition, temperature and other characteristics directly affect the livelihoods of all life on planet Earth. However, modern society has abandoned this valuable resource, and therefore the urgent issue is to create an effective mechanism for cleaning and rational use of water.
Water resources are composed of many sources, but they all constitute the hydrosphere. Its unsatisfactory condition can lead to the extinction of people, animal populations, the disappearance of plants, the spread of infectious diseases.
The problem of water in the world is urgent and requires prompt intervention. If the international community ignores such questions, then there is a threat of a complete shortage of water resources on the planet.