Viral pneumonia: symptoms and treatment. Viral pneumonia: symptoms in children
Viral pneumonia is a fairly common disease that is accompanied by an inflammatory lesion of the lower respiratory tract. Of course, in this case viruses act as pathogens. It is worth noting that the disease affects both adults and children, and the clinical picture in this case is quite characteristic. So what is a disease? What methods of treatment are used in modern medicine?
The main causes of the disease: a variety of pathogens
For a start, it is worth noting that viral pneumonia is most common in pediatric patients. According to statistics, approximately 90% of cases of this disease are registered in the pediatric ward.
In the role of the pathogen can be a variety of viruses.In particular, these may be influenza A and B viruses, as well as adenoviruses, respiratory-sitsitialny virus, parainfluenza virus, etc. As a rule, the infection is transmitted by airborne droplets. By the way, in most cases a few days later a bacterial infection joins the virus infection.
Viral pneumonia: symptoms of the disease in adults
The incubation period for a similar ailment usually lasts about 3-5 days. After this period, the first signs of a disease called "viral pneumonia" begin to appear. The symptoms in this case depend on many factors, including the patient's age, the type of infection, the general condition of the body, etc.
Pneumonia is often preceded by an acute respiratory illness, such as influenza. At the beginning of the development of inflammation, symptoms of acute intoxication appear. In particular, patients complain of malaise and weakness, an increase in body temperature (sometimes up to 40 degrees), as well as body aches, chills, and muscle pain. In addition, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite may occur. Some patients complain of pain in the eyeballs.
Symptoms of viral pneumonia are rapidly increasing. There is persistent nasal congestion and runny nose. Then there is a dry cough, which gradually turns into a wet - there is a release of mucus mucus. In the event that pus is mixed into the mucus, we can talk about the addition of a bacterial infection.
As a rule, viral pneumonia causes bilateral inflammation. Some patients complain of shortness of breath. Sometimes you can notice blueing of the tips of the fingers and nose, which is associated with developing hypoxia. Chest pain occurs only in the most severe cases.
Viral pneumonia: symptoms in children
As already mentioned, in 90% of cases children suffer from this disease. If untreated, the disease can be extremely dangerous. That is why it is important to consult a doctor in time, because only a specialist can diagnose a child with viral pneumonia.
The symptoms in children correspond to the clinical picture of the disease in adults. Although the first signs can be easily confused with the flu or another acute respiratory disease, some of the characteristic features can still be noted.
For example, unlike ARVI, the temperature during pneumonia does not normalize after 1-2 days. In addition, the child can observe noticeable shortness of breath. Severe fever in babies can cause cramps and loss of consciousness. In severe forms of the disease, you can see that when you inhale, the baby’s chest is drawn in (normally it should expand).
In any case, acute viral pneumonia in children is a reason to consult a doctor as soon as possible. Lack of medical care can lead to complications, especially when it comes to pediatric patients.
Influenza pneumonia and its features
The most common cause of pneumonia is flu viruses. This disease has a rather characteristic clinical picture - a sharp rise in temperature, the appearance of symptoms of intoxication, as well as a dry cough, at which mucous sputum begins to separate.
But there is also a rather specific hemorrhagic form of influenza pneumonia, which is considered extremely dangerous. Symptoms appear abruptly, and the patient's condition is aggravated rapidly. In the discharge of sputum, you can notice blood impurities.In severe cases, this disease is accompanied by pulmonary edema, the development of respiratory failure, and sometimes a coma.
Pneumonia caused by other viruses
Often, other viruses cause the development of inflammation, and the symptoms of the disease may depend on the nature of the pathogen:
- With parainfluenza, the clinical picture is similar to influenza pneumonia, but the symptoms are weaker and the patient’s condition is not so severe.
- If the cause of inflammation are adenoviruses, then the disease is characterized by persistent fever, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, as well as prolonged cough, tracheal inflammation, hemoptysis, conjunctivitis.
- With respiratory syncytial pneumonia, there is a persistent increase in body temperature, as well as severe pain in the chest.
Modern diagnostic methods
Of course, in the presence of the above symptoms should immediately see a doctor. During the examination, the specialist must find out exactly what violations concern the patient. After a physical examination, the doctor will prescribe some additional tests that will help make an accurate diagnosis.
In particular, a mandatory study for suspected pneumonia is radiography - in the pictures you can see interstitial changes in lung tissue. In addition, blood samples must be taken. A general analysis will confirm the presence of an inflammatory process. Also in the blood of patients increases the number of antibody titers to certain viruses.
Sometimes the patient is taken samples of mucus from the nose and pharynx - in the future they are examined using the immunofluorescent method.
What treatment does modern medicine offer?
Viral pneumonia in adults and children requires appropriate treatment. To begin, the doctor will consider the issue of hospitalization. Treatment of newborns, the elderly, as well as patients with severe cardiovascular diseases should be treated in a hospital. With a mild course of the disease, it is possible to conduct outpatient therapy at home.
To begin with, it is worth noting that the patient needs bed rest and good nutrition. Also abundant, warm drink is extremely important - it accelerates the process of excretion of toxins from the body.
In the first 48 hours after the onset of the disease, it is recommended to take antiviral drugs, for example, Ingavirin, Tamiflu (if we are talking about influenza pneumonia) or Acyclovir (used if the pathogen is chickenpox virus).
Antiviral therapy is not the only event that is carried out with a disease called "viral pneumonia." Treatment also includes antipyretic drugs, such as Nurofen or Paracetamol, which not only eliminates fever, but have an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.
In order to facilitate the process of sputum discharge, expectorants are used such as "Lasolvan", "Fluditek", "Bronhikum", "Ambrobene". If viral pneumonia is complicated by a bacterial infection, antibiotics are additionally included in the course of treatment.
Are complications possible?
Viral pneumonia is a serious disease. If the patient was provided with high-quality medical care, then the forecasts are quite favorable. Complications occur only when refusing therapy or in particularly severe forms of the disease.
The most common complications include pulmonary destruction. In some cases, pneumonia contributes to the development of pleurisy - a disease accompanied by inflammation of the pleural membranes. Occasionally, patients develop cardiopulmonary failure.
There are some recommendations, following which you can reduce the likelihood of developing a viral form of pneumonia. First of all, doctors advise time to get vaccinated against measles and flu. If possible, try to avoid contact with infected people. In conditions of an unfavorable epidemiological situation, it is necessary to reduce the time spent in public places to a minimum or to carry with them personal protective equipment, for example, medical masks.
Naturally, attention should be paid to strengthening the immune system - to monitor nutrition, exercise, harden the body, take multivitamin complexes, etc. As in any other case, it is important to follow the rules of personal hygiene. And do not forget that viral pneumonia requires proper treatment, so do not ignore the advice of a doctor.