Venereal disease: the main symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
The term "venereal disease" means an infectious disease that is transmitted during sexual intercourse. It should be said that such diseases are known to mankind for a long time. Today, of course, they are not so common, and effective methods of therapy exist. Unfortunately, many patients prefer to ignore the symptoms of the disease and seek help as soon as complications develop.
That is why you should read the available information. How and where can I catch an infection? What are the symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases in men and women? Where can I get tested? What is the treatment scheme? How to protect against sexually transmitted infections? Many readers are looking for answers to these questions.
Venereal diseases in men and women
Let's see what it is.The term “venereal disease” unites a whole group of diseases of infectious origin. In the role of pathogens can act bacterial, viral and parasitic microorganisms - today managed to isolate more than 30 different ailments. The infection is transmitted mainly during intercourse. By the way, other ways of spreading pathogens are possible, for example, through blood. Household transmission is also possible, but is much less common.
Venereal diseases are considered to be quite common, and 50% of those infected are young people under 24 years of age. The risk group includes primarily men and women with promiscuous sex, especially if condoms are not used during contact.
The most common bacterial venereal diseases in men and women are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Trichomoniasis is a parasitic disease. There are also viral genital infections, in particular, papillomavirus, genital herpes and HIV. It is very important to diagnose the disease in time and begin treatment.In the early stages, venereal diseases respond well to treatment, but as the disease progresses, the infection spreads to other organs of the reproductive system and not only.
The main symptoms of the disease
The symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases in men and women, of course, depend on the type of pathogen. The incubation period can last from several weeks to several months and even years. During this period, the person becomes a distributor of the infection, even unaware of the presence of his own problem.
Despite the diversity, there are several main symptoms that are more or less present in any genital infection. Venereal disease is usually accompanied by fever. Patients complain of discomfort in the genital area, sometimes there is burning and soreness. The general symptoms include inflammation of the lymph nodes (most often their increase is observed in the groin area). Many patients complain of an increase in the urge to urinate, and the process itself is often accompanied by a pain.
Many diseases are accompanied by external signs, such as a rash, redness and swelling of the genitals. Often, men appear mucous or purulent discharge from the urethra.Venereal diseases in women are accompanied by vaginal secretions of an uncharacteristic color, often with an unpleasant odor.
If you notice any of the signs, you should consult a doctor. Self-treatment is very dangerous, because first you need to determine the nature of the pathogen and the stage of development of the disease. In the absence of adequate therapy, sexually transmitted diseases often turn into a chronic form, which entails very unpleasant consequences (prostatitis, infertility). To cure a chronic disease is much more difficult, and even with the right approach to get rid of the infection and the effects of its activity is not always possible.
Gonorrhea: causes and symptoms
Gonorrhea is an infectious disease that is accompanied by inflammation of the organs of the urogenital system. The causative agent is gonococcus, which is most often transmitted during sexual intercourse. Microorganisms infect organs that are lined with cylindrical epithelium, in particular the urethra and uterus. Much less frequently, the infection spreads to the mucous membranes of the intestines, pharynx, conjunctiva of the eyes. If untreated, pathogens can affect the locomotor system, in particular the joints.
Signs of sexually transmitted diseases are quite characteristic.There is swelling of the mucous membranes of the genitals. Many patients complain of pain in the lower abdomen and pain during urination. People are constantly worried about discomfort, burning and itching. There are vaginal and urethral discharge - often they contain impurities of pus and have a very unpleasant odor.
Syphilis: features of the clinical picture
At one time, syphilis was a terrible disease that invariably led to a rather painful death. Today, this disease is easily diagnosed and rather successfully treated. The causative agent is a pale spirochete that spreads sexually. The incubation period lasts about 3-4 weeks.
Syphilis is a systemic disease with a wave-like course. The primary stage of the disease lasts about 6-8 weeks and is accompanied by the formation of a hard chancre at the site of infection through the skin (as a rule, it is a hillock or pimple on the genitals). Secondary syphilis develops over the years - the infection gradually spreads to other organs, affecting the circulatory system, the musculoskeletal system. Often syphilis is accompanied by characteristic skin rashes and alopecia.The tertiary stage is characterized by severe damage to the central nervous system, which is often fatal.
Chlamydia is a very common venereal disease. The photo shows the pathogen, namely chlamydia. This is a group of fairly dangerous diseases. Pathological microorganisms primarily affect the organs of the genitourinary system. Urethritis, vulvovaginitis and cystitis are observed. In men, this disease often leads to the development of prostatitis. Women suffer from cervicitis, endometritis and erosion, which, of course, is fraught with sterility.
In some cases, the infection spreads to other organ systems. Chlamydial pneumonia may develop. Other complications include bacterial conjunctivitis and encephalopathy. The most dangerous is the generalized form of chlamydia, in which pathogenic microorganisms infect the tissues of the liver, heart, digestive tract and lungs.
Clinical picture with trichomoniasis
The causative agent of trichomoniasis is vaginal trichomonas. By the way, these microorganisms affect only the organs of the genitourinary system. In men, the testicles, seminal vesicles, urethra and prostate gland become target organs.Women suffer from inflammation of the urethra, vagina and cervical canal.
Patients complain of pain, redness and irritation of the genital area. Often there is a rich frothy discharge with an unpleasant odor of yellow or even green. There is discomfort during urination and sexual intercourse. Ulcers and erosion can form on the mucous membrane of the genitals. Some patients develop dermatitis on the skin of the hips.
Viral venereal diseases
If we are talking about viral diseases, then it is worth mentioning genital herpes, the causative agent of which is the herpes simplex virus (most often the second type). Signs of sexually transmitted diseases in this case - the appearance of a blistering rash on the skin of the penis, scrotum in men, in the anus and the vulva in women. Often, rather painful sores are formed at the site of eruptions. By the way, herpes infection is usually activated against the background of a decrease in the activity of the immune system, and it is completely impossible to cure it.
The next common causative agent is the human papillomavirus, which can also be transmitted during sexual intercourse. There are more than 100 varieties of this virus.In most cases, warts (papillomas) of various shapes and sizes appear on the background of its activity. They can form on the skin and mucous membranes, and not only in the genital area.
The most dangerous viral disease is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The infection spreads during sexual intercourse, as well as upon contact with the blood of an infected person. This virus destroys the human immune system, making the body susceptible to almost any other infection (even the common cold can be dangerous). The incubation period lasts an average of 10 years. Today, doctors can only offer maintenance therapy.
Tests for sexually transmitted diseases and other diagnostic methods
Having noticed the symptoms causing suspicions, it is necessary to see a doctor. After a general examination, the patient must pass tests for venereal diseases. There are several basic research methods.
For bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections, microscopic examination of tissue samples is the most informative. A smear is taken from the urethra in men and from the vagina and cervical canal in women. The procedure is quite simple - sampling takes only a few minutes.Two days before the tests, doctors recommend abandoning sexual intercourse. An hour before the fence is empty bladder. Microscopic examination specialist can detect the presence of Trichomonas, chlamydia, ureaplasma, gonokokkov and other microorganisms.
The advantages of the technique include the speed and low cost. On the other hand, the laboratory assistant does not always succeed in identifying all pathogens, so this analysis is used for preliminary diagnostics — additional tests are needed to make a final diagnosis.
Additionally, bacteriological seeding of samples obtained from a smear is carried out. The study takes several days, but it makes it possible to accurately determine the causative agent of the disease, as well as the degree of its sensitivity to certain medicines.
Sometimes a blood test is performed, although it is more effective for viral infections. It is worth saying that in some cases false results are possible, as time is needed for the immune system to start producing antibodies.
The basic principles of treatment
The treatment of venereal diseases directly depends on the type of disease, the stage of its development and, of course, the nature of the pathogen. If we are talking about a bacterial infection, then antibiotics will be effective. For example, in chlamydia, Azithromycin is used. If we are talking about gonorrhea, then Cefixime or some other broad spectrum antibiotics are used. Syphilis in the first stage also responds well to treatment with antibacterial agents. Of course, as the disease progresses, the infection spreads to other organs, therefore other drugs are included in the therapy.
Patients with trichomoniasis are prescribed antiparasitic agents containing tinidazole or metronidazole.
As for viral diseases, for example, herpes, papillomavirus, it is impossible to get rid of them completely - viral particles remain in the body, occasionally provoking an exacerbation of the disease. During an acute inflammatory process, antiviral drugs (“Acyclovir”) are used in the form of tablets or gels for external use.
Immediately it should be said that if the patient has a venereal disease, then both partners should receive treatment, since there is a high likelihood of re-infection.During treatment, it is recommended to refrain from sexual contact. The state of the immune system is also important. Proper nutrition, frequent walks, physical activity, normal sleep and rest, lack of stress - all this has a positive effect on the protective functions of the body, increasing resistance to infectious agents.
Preventive precautions: how to prevent infection?
As you can see, genital infections can be quite dangerous, and therapy takes a long time. It is much easier to avoid infection than to undergo a comprehensive treatment. What is the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases? Specific means, unfortunately, not available. But, following some rules, you can reduce the risk of infection.
As mentioned, people with promiscuous sex are at risk. In this case, the use of a condom is simply necessary, since today it is the only means of protection against infection (oral contraceptives and other means only prevent fertilization). In the event that nevertheless there was sexual contact without the use of protection, it is important to carry out hygienic procedures as soon as possible.For washing you can use boiled water and soap. Women are encouraged to douch, preferably with the use of antiseptics, in particular "Miramistina".
After it is necessary to pass tests for venereal diseases - the sooner the disease is detected, the faster and easier it will be treated.