Types of soil

Type is the main unit of soil classification. It is allocated in accordance with the profile of the earth. VV Dokuchaev in 1886 for the first time classified types.

Soils that have arisen during the cultivation of areas that are not suitable for the development of agriculture, belong to a special group.

Some species do not form groups (zones), they occur on separate areas within zones. This is largely due to the features of the rocks, moistening, terrain relief.

The most common are the zonal types of soils. They (together with plant and other elements of the landscape) form natural areas.

Types of soil

  1. Marsh lands. These soils are formed with prolonged or excessive permanent moistening (bogging). As a rule, they are formed in the forest territories of temperate zones.
  2. Brown forest. These types of soils are mainly found in coniferous-broad-leaved and broad-leaved forests in areas with a moderately warm humid climate.
  3. Brown semi-desert, desert-steppe. These types of soils are formed in areas with a dry climate, in the temperate zone, under desert-steppe plant species.
  4. Mountain. They represent a group formed in a mountainous area. Virtually all types of soils included in this category are distinguished by crushed stone, insignificant capacity and the presence of primary minerals.
  5. Chestnut. Distributed in semi-deserts and steppes of the temperate zone.
  6. Meadow soils are formed under meadow species of plants, in areas of high surface moistening or areas subject to continuous groundwater exposure.
  7. Saline. Distributed in arid regions with a high concentration (more than 0.25%) of mineral salts, easily soluble in water - magnesium, calcium, sodium carbonates, sulfates, chlorides.
  8. Podzolic soils are formed in mixed forests andtaiga, in a temperate continental and continental climate. They experience excessive moistening and are constantly washed with seeping waters.
  9. Serozems are common in deserts and semi-deserts in the subtropical belt.
  10. Fused soils are formed in the subtropical,tropical, equatorial belts. In their profile they have a merged horizon, which in the wet state strongly swells and acquires high plasticity, remains solid and dense in dry form.
  11. Tundra. A combination of soils of the Northern Hemisphere and its tundra zone is compiled. This category includes tundra humus-carbonate, sod, podzolic and other soils.
  12. Chernozems. These soils are common in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the temperate belt.

An important indicator in the classification of soil is its composition.

Light - sandy - soils include largethe amount of sand, a small proportion of humus, a small amount of clay particles. Soils of higher density belong to the category of heavy - clay soils. They do not crumble during processing, on the contrary, they form large clods, which makes digging very difficult.

Stony soils are common on the slopes of mountains or hills and are not distinguished by fertility. Most of them are made up of rock fragments.

The basis of peat-bog soils is moredegree organic matter. They are rich in nitrogen, contain little potassium and a very small amount of phosphorus. However, there are also peatbovianite soils, in which, on the contrary, a high concentration of phosphorus is noted.

Sandy loam soils are endowed with many propertiesSandy with a more balanced ratio of components, they are an intermediate variety. These soils are considered favorable in all respects for the cultivation of plants.

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Types of soil

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