Is the rotunda a temple, a mausoleum or a gazebo?
Since ancient times, gazebos in many world nations have been associated with solitude, peace and quiet. Historians are convinced that the ancestor of the gazebo, entwined with ivy, was a rotunda. The rotunda is a round construction. These can be temples, pavilions, gazebos, halls, mausoleums, etc. Most often, a dome crowned with a rotunda is crowned.
The rotunda is also a landscape gardening element of architecture. The gaps between the columns in the rotunda can be filled with a balustrade, and the internal space allows, as a rule, to arrange radius benches. Today, the most common materials for building a rotunda are plastic, wood and stone. An integral attribute of the estate of the nobility of the XVIII century, huge round Greek mausoleums - that's what the rotunda is.
Rotunda in Soloniki
One of the most famous sights in Soloniki is the rotunda of St. George. The building was built at the beginning of the IV century and belongs to the palace complex, as well as the famous Galerius arch, which is located 125 meters from the place where the rotunda stands.
This palace complex was erected by order of the Roman emperor Galerius himself. The word "rotunda" came to us from the Italian "rotonda", which literally means "round." There is a version that the rotunda was conceived as a mausoleum, but was never used for this purpose.
According to another version, the rotunda is part of the palace for official receptions. But initially, perhaps, it was planned as a temple. What is the rotunda in Thessaloniki? Historians have not been able to come to a consensus. Presumably, at the beginning of the 4th century, this building was redesigned into a Christian church and belonged to Christians until 1591, when Turks came to the city and made a mosque from the rotunda. In 1912, after the city was liberated from the Turkish invaders, the Christians regained the rotunda and opened the Museum of Christian Art there.
In 1988, the Rotunda was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. To date, the building services are held on major religious holidays. Initially the building was cylindrical with thick, not less than 6 meters, walls with arches and a massive dome with an oculus. At the end of IV - the beginning of V centuries some changes were made to the architecture of the building. For example, in the western part the nave was erected, and in the southeast - an apse.The main entrance was also moved to the western part. The interior of the rotunda was decorated with magnificent mosaics, some of which have been preserved to this day. And in the days of the Turks, a minaret was added, which can also be seen today.
Rotunda in Old Russian architecture
The rotunda were in Russia, let's look at examples. A 18 meter diameter rotunda with 4 pillars in the very center was once erected in Smolensk. Only our remains have survived to this day. This is the church of the German Virgin, which was built by order of foreign traders in the second half of the XII century. Rotunda temples were built mainly in the south of Russia - in Galicia, Kiev, Vladimir-Volynsky, Lviv, Peremyshl. The foundations of small round buildings were found in Chernikhovtsy, Nizhankovichy, Stolpye, Uzhgorod and dated to the XIII-XIV centuries.
The Cathedral of the Vysokopetrovsky Monastery is an excellent example of a rotunda, as is the Cathedral of the Resurrection New Jerusalem Monastery, which was built by order of Patriarch Nikon. The Trinity Church in St. Petersburg is built in the shape of a rotunda. In addition to those named, many other rotundas have survived to this day.
Goryany - a village in the suburbs of Uzhgorod. The name comes from the word "hot" - mountain people. The Goryanskaya Rotunda is the most valuable monument of Ukrainian architecture, which by its age and value is second only to Sophia of Kiev. Goryanskaya rotunda is unique in that it is a hexagon. Churches of this form in the world are few.
Rotunda on Gorokhovaya
This is perhaps the most mysterious and mysterious place in St. Petersburg. There are many myths associated with this rotunda. Here, they say, there was once a brothel, here Lyonka Panteleyev and Rasputin once lived, and then, perhaps, they were ordained masons. According to the official version, this building was built with a mundane purpose, for renting apartments, by order of a merchant named Ustinov. In 1827, construction was completed, and the customer was satisfied. However, there is another version that is more popular with locals. It is believed that the building was originally intended either for Satanists, or for the Masonic Lodge. There are many versions, but the proof is the same for everyone - a strange pattern of lattices, similar to pentagrams.
Rotunda is not in architecture
In typography, a rotunda is a type of gothic font. In geometry, there is the concept of a pentagonal rotunda — it is a multifaceted body that makes up half the icosododecahedron. In the Middle Ages, dancing was also called the rotunda, in which it is customary to walk in a circle. For example, round dance.