The motherboard is ... The device and purpose of motherboards. Motherboard specifications
Every day, millions of people sit down at their workplaces, turn on PCs and start to fulfill their duties. However, most of them have no idea how their computer works, how it all works. If you ask about his device, then most users will answer: a monitor, keyboard, mouse and system unit. And to the question of why the car cannot be started without, they answer: without electricity. In this case, few people guess about the structure and are able to distinguish at least some of the board inside.
This article will consider one of the fundamental parts of the computer, without which his work would be impossible in principle. If you are a novice user and are going to assemble your PC, and not use ready-made market offers, you will need tips on motherboards that you will receive here.
A motherboard is nothing more than the foundation of your computer. The fundamental and connecting link of all elements. Its other name is the motherboard. Its main function is to transfer control signals and data between components - a processor, a chipset, expansion cards, external devices.
The main characteristics of the motherboard that are worth paying attention to are the form factor, the number of connectors for PCI Express expansion cards, the type of RAM supported and its volume, the type of processor connector. And some additional, but not critical details - the type of port for the mouse, the version of the USB port, the presence of Wi-Fi and HDMI.
Based on these characteristics, the user must make a choice when purchasing. The main thing to remember is that the best motherboard is the one that perfectly fits the rest of your chosen components.
Any motherboard is divided into two main interacting parts - the north and south bridge.
The south bridge is a single chip that links together most of the slow interactions in a computer, and also links them to the processor via a north bridge.Physically, the south bridge consists of the following parts:
- PCI, LPC, Super I / O controllers;
- IDE and SATA controllers;
- power management;
- network card management.
In some cases, it can directly control the mouse, keyboard, and external ports, although often they are controlled through a dedicated Super I / O I / O controller.
The north bridge, otherwise called the memory controller hub, includes:
- RAM, if it is not connected directly to the processor;
- video adapter
It is the north bridge in the motherboard that generates the greatest amount of heat, as a result, in most cases, when implementing the computer architecture, it requires an individual cooling system.
With the development of computer technology, some manufacturers began to abandon the north bridge as part of the architecture. For example, Intel motherboards, starting with Intel Nehalem, removed the north bridge, transferring some of its functions to the central processor, thus reducing the number of active components of the motherboard.
Putting the computer
The first thing you need to find out before you buy is the form factor.It is mandatory to check the size of the motherboard with sellers. Most modern personal desktops use the ATX standard. More on how to connect the motherboard, consider below.
- First of all, install the board in the computer case and fix it with screws.
- In connector 1, connect the cable coming from your power supply. This is the main element that powers the motherboard. Be careful, there are connectors for 20 and 24 pin (the number of pins), so when buying, make sure that your power supply is suitable for the system board. As a piece of advice, it’s worth saying that first of all it’s worth taking a motherboard. And already to her pick up the power supply.
- In the second connector, we also connect the cord coming from the power supply unit, designed to power the CPU. We also press all the way to the stop so that the latch fits into place, and the power does not turn off during operation.
- In third place is the connector on the motherboard, for a bit outdated, but still found, drive for reading diskettes. This connector has minor differences from connector 4, but if you look closely, you can easily see the differences.
- The IDE ATA interface is used to connect a hard disk or a CD / DVD drive.The cable for this connector is different in that it has two output interfaces, so when you connect one cable, you can connect both the CD drive and the hard disk immediately. Unlike the above example, most motherboards have several such connectors.
- Another way to connect a hard disk and a CD / DVD drive is the SATA interface. It is connected via connector No. 5. It is used in new devices, and it is not possible to mix it up with another connector.
Having figured out how to connect the motherboard, go to the connection of the remaining devices and interfaces.
After connecting external and internal devices, as well as power to the motherboard, you can begin to connect the expansion cards - RAM, graphics card, network card.
When buying, you should have been given the full specification and types of connectors. Remember that RAM must be chosen the same standard as specified in the documentation. DDR2 memory cannot be plugged into a DDR3 slot, so when purchasing make sure you take a modern motherboard with the latest interfaces.Find components of the old formats is problematic, and the new ones are not much different in price category.
As for the graphics card, here you can not go wrong. In most cases, this is the largest connector on the motherboard. In older models, the connection was made by simply snapping the video card into the slot. In modern high-end video cards there is its own independent cooling system. It must also be connected directly to the motherboard using a two-pin loop. Typically, the power connector is closer to the processor, since it also connects to the cooling of the processor itself.
The most important part connected to the motherboard will be the CPU. Processors also have their own unique connectors. For example, the ASUS VANGUARD B85 motherboard has an LGA1150 socket, to which you can connect Intel i7 / i5 / i3 processors, while others may have problems.
Consider below the concept of what is the best motherboard. Despite the fact that Intel has extensive experience in the development of equipment for personal computers, it is now developing components.Therefore, even the largest companies are forced to manufacture products for Intel motherboards.
At the 2014 forum held by Asus, there were, as usual, new products. Among them - this budget motherboard, the price of which will be affordable for most ordinary people. Rejecting the usual design, the company "Asus" has released a motherboard in bronze shades, with a fairly rich equipment. This inexpensive board includes:
- three PCIe x16 slots;
- four DIMM slots for RAM, with support for up to 32 gigabytes;
- one modern SATA Express slot;
- and also, even on such a nondescript motherboard, the Crystal Sound 2 sound chipset was installed.
Without a doubt, Asus is raising the bar for its motherboard, staying in the same price category as before. This will allow them to remain among the leaders in the market of computer components.
At the same exhibition another model of the motherboard was presented. We can say that she deserves to be a real leader among her sisters. The flagship ASUS motherboard provides the user with a truly unlimited potential expansion of your computer. The secret of this success is the number of interfaces, which has doubled.Here are the characteristics of the motherboard:
- two interfaces Sata Express;
- 6 additional ports SATS 6G;
- 8 USB 3.0 ports;
- 3 PCI Express 3.0 x16 slots;
- Crystal Sound 2.
Of course, for an ordinary user, such a motherboard, the price of which can go off-scale for 10,000 rubles, is not suitable, therefore, if you try to build a budget computer for yourself, then be sure to explore the options. Sales assistants in the stores provide a diverse selection in an affordable price range from 2,000 to 8,000 rubles.
A laptop motherboard is not just the body to which the devices are connected. This is the very life of a laptop. If you, God forbid, spill coffee on it or damage it, then in most cases get ready to say goodbye to even half the equipment installed inside.
The fact is that not all laptops on the motherboard can replace components. The built-in video card or RAM will require additional costs in the event of a repair, so always be clear about what you need a computer for and if you need a laptop at home.
Replacing laptop components is difficult even for experienced system administrators, so if a part of it or, especially, the motherboard breaks,in 90% of cases you will have to contact the service center.
Many believe that a personal computer is a kind of tool for work, like a saw or hammer. It is clear that in this case the user is absolutely wrong. A computer, and, in particular, a motherboard, is a whole interacting system consisting of millions of parts. Imagine that the motherboard lying on the table is a city, and the billions of bits of information that pass through it every day are residents. It is clear that you need to monitor and care for your instrument.
When a manufacturer tests its product, it does not expect that insects or, worse, rats, will live in it. Perhaps the benefits of computer prevention are obvious, how you feel about your workplace will depend on how long it will serve you. Moreover, the care of the motherboard and the internal computer does not take you much time.
At least once a month, or better often, completely disconnect the computer from the network and remove the cover from the power supply. In any computer store you can buy a compressed air bottle, or you can use a vacuum cleaner tuned for blowing out.Be sure to blow through all radiators and corners of the system unit, avoiding direct contact with the boards and wires.
If you have not cleaned the system unit for a long time, do it on the street and in a gauze bandage so as not to breathe dust. Never use liquids or sprays. Remember that the dust in the cooling systems, and on the boards themselves, increases the temperature and can cause them to break. Therefore, cleaning inside a computer is not a whim, but rather a vital necessity.
If you still could not protect your computer from damage and are not able to determine for yourself which part is damaged, it is better to use the services of the service center. In most cases, you can define a problem yourself only if something is broken from the components. If the problem is in the motherboard, then only the electronics engineer will deal with it.
The motherboard is an essential component for the repair of which will be required
special skills and equipment. If you have a broken laptop, then there is also a lot of space for disassembling it.
The key to successful repair is the most important detail - in the correct diagnosis and troubleshooting.The biggest mistake of an ordinary user will be an attempt to repair themselves. In this case, a person may not only not fix the board, but also bring it to the state when it will have to be thrown into the garbage.
If you have a failure in the laptop, as soon as possible, deliver it to the service center. A laptop motherboard is a difficult element to replace. Therefore, ignoring minor failures can lead to the fact that, remaining indifferent to an error once, you will have to face more serious problems.
It is important to realize that the motherboard is the main component of the cost of a laptop. Therefore, in case of failures, it is better to turn to professionals immediately and not to delay, they will help to bring your laptop back to life at minimal cost.
So, the motherboard is the basis of your computer life. Many programmers claim that computers have their own soul and character. They recognize only one owner. If you believe in this theory, the soul of the computer is precisely in the motherboard.
Chosen with soul and attention, the motherboard, with proper care, will serve you for a long time, regardless of its cost or components. You need to take care of her, take care of her, and then she will serve you for a very long time.Never hesitate to contact specialists and do not repair it yourself.
Following the tips of this article, you can easily assemble your computer and not worry about the fact that he suddenly refuses to you at the most inopportune moment.