The main types of reforms
Any person in life has come across the concept of reform. In the light of modern events, this word has become quite popular. Now it appears not only in the speeches of politicians and presenters, but also in the media, in books and in other places. Consider what “reform” means and what types of reforms are.
The essence of this concept
This word comes from the Latin, which in Russian means "transformation". Accordingly, the word “reform” means a change in the social life of the object, as well as in the areas of human life. It should be noted that the historical development of society directly depends on the reforms. Due to the fact that this process can affect any sphere of human life, there are several types of reforms. This process can occur in any state, describing its domestic policy. At the same time, it fully affects the political structure, as well as the economic and social.
There are several types of reforms that affect not only the development of the country, but also the course of history.
The first is a progressive conversion process. Thus, such reforms are considered to be those that entail improving the life of any sector of the population. It may also concern the whole system. As a rule, progressive reforms have a positive effect on the level of the economy, social security in life, and so on.
Regressive reforms are those that reduce the standard of living and also lead to any other negative consequences. For example, if you increase the tax rate, then production will decline, the economy will turn into “shadow activity”, and the standard of living of people will fall. With the implementation of regressive reforms, riots, strikes and so on can occur. Fortunately, even with negative consequences, sometimes reforms of this type lead to positive resolution. An example of this is the increase in taxes in order to strengthen the social protection of a person. At first, this will cause strikes, as well as resentment from people, but when the system fully manifests itself, it will cause a positive response from citizens. Accordingly, life will be better.
The types of reforms described above (social studies allows them to be studied in school) are not the only ones. It should be noted that if we talk about the scope, the reform has a fairly extensive list of options.
Political ones are directed to a certain sphere of the state: it is a question of a change in the electoral system or the transformation of the rules of governing the country. Economic influence on the development of external relations or lead to changes in internal activities related to the economy. Social is held in order to change the way people live. This is a general description, but there are other types of reforms. Consider them.
- Constitutional. Should be attributed to the political sphere. In carrying out such a reform, the amended documents are introduced into the Constitution, which relate to the structure of the fulfillment of power or change the principles of work.
- There is an educational reform. This is a type of social reform. It concerns not only the work of the ministry system, but also ordinary institutions, including schools, universities, colleges, and so on.
- To the economic sphere should also include agrarian reform.It affects the conduct of agricultural activities. It can either support the work in the field, or toughen its rules and requirements.
There are some types of monetary reform, but it itself is considered a special type in a general sense. As a rule, it is carried out only if absolutely necessary. For example, if it is necessary to improve the economic system, raise the course or stabilize it, or during the period when the state is trying to hold other important events.
Most often held a denomination. This is the process by which a currency is strengthened without changing its name. There are also two other concepts: devaluation, that is, the depreciation of a particular country in comparison with the currencies of other states, as well as nullification. The latter is carried out when a new monetary unit is introduced, completely eliminating the previous one.
The main types of monetary reforms in Russia are described above.
The most famous reforms
The most famous reform is the abolition of serfdom. Also such can be called the processes that Stolypin conducted in 1906. Thanks to all the activities that were carried out in agriculture,This reform led to a good lifestyle and a change in the economy. In her school year, she is taught as the Stolypin agrarian reform.
Also known is the process of changing spelling in Russian. He was remembered by historians for the fact that some letters were removed from the alphabet. It is about reform, which was carried out in 1917-1918. From 1965, economic reform was carried out in the USSR. It is associated with the planning and functioning of the national economy. It lasted 5 years (until 1970). In the west, this reform is called the reform of Lieberman, in the USSR it was called Kosyginsky.
Restructuring is another very famous reform. It lasted in the second half of the eighties in the USSR. If we talk about specific years, it is from 1986 to 1991. The objective of this reform was the introduction of democratization in the territory of the USSR, as well as the stabilization of the economic system of the state. These types of economic reforms have always been successful.
In the 90s, an economic reform was carried out, which allowed the privatization of former allied enterprises, as well as the liberalization of prices and foreign trade. Another well-known reform is the beginning of the use of the euro currency in the European Union.
There are also many well-known reforms that lowered the standard of living. As a rule, they consisted in the same nuances. Therefore, we simply list the list of those that did not lead to the proper development of the state. It is about increasing the working day, taxes, retirement age. Also negative cause a decrease in unemployment benefits, a reduction in free education, as well as the number of medical services performed free of charge.
Revolution is a word that is close to reform. It should be noted that it means a huge as well as a radical change in society. If you look at the differences between revolution and evolution, there are significant differences. In it, all changes occur fairly quickly. This system differs from reforms in that they are more relaxed; in the course of their implementation, the existing foundations of any sphere are not affected.
It should be noted that quite often in the textbooks there are such questions as: “What kinds of social progress, reform or revolution, will be more preferable for the development of society?” a change in society.Although the reform is rather slow, but its negative consequences, if they are eliminated in time, are much easier to eliminate. The revolution in any case will contribute to the emergence of victims, differences in society, often it is carried out with the help of civil war.
As a rule, a revolution occurs even when problems are emerging in society that need to be solved, but the government is in no hurry to do so. Many know that all revolutions are usually carried out by ordinary people. In the history of mankind there are hundreds of interesting examples, as a result of which the society either achieved positive changes or completely destroyed the state. A revolution is considered a development of society that hits people hard enough.
Types of revolution
Looking through the main types of reform, it is already possible to understand that they are completely dependent on the scope of their application. The same goes for revolution. In society there are several types. For example, it is industrial, cultural, "green", demographic. There are also some others. In science, there is a scientific and technological revolution. If we talk about the political, it is divided into social and political.
All types of reforms and revolutions have a rather strong effect on society.However, it should be noted that even when they are carried out at first it is not clear that they are destructive or, on the contrary, will bring only success. Their performance is shown after several years, after they began to act. That is why it is necessary to fully weigh the pros and cons, in order not to be mistaken.