The defeat of the Polovtsians Vladimir Monomakh. Who are the Polovtsians?
The history of Russia is full of different events. Each of them leaves its mark in the memory of the whole people. Some key and turning events reach our days and remain revered and worthy in our society. Protecting your cultural heritage, remembering great victories and generals is a very important duty for every person. The princes of Russia were not always on top in terms of their management of Rus, but they tried to be one family, which jointly takes all decisions. In the most critical and difficult moments there always appeared a man who "took the bull by the horns" and turned the course of history in the opposite direction. One of such great people is Vladimir Monomakh, who is still considered an important figure in the history of Russia. He achieved many complex military and political goals, while he rarely resorted to cruel methods. His methods consisted of tactics, patience and wisdom, which allowed him to reconcile adults who hated each other for years. In addition, you can not ignore the talent of the prince to fight, because Monomakh's tactics often saved the Russian army from destruction. The defeat of the Polovtsy Prince Vladimir thought through to the smallest detail and therefore "trampled" this threat to Russia.
Polovtsy, or polovchane, as they are calledhistorians, is a people of Turkic origin, who led a nomadic way of life. In different sources they are given different names: Byzantine documents - kumans, in Arab-Persian - Kypchaks. The beginning of the eleventh century turned out to be very productive for the people: it drove out torches and Pechenegs from the Trans-Volga region and itself settled in these parts. However, on this the conquerors decided not to stop and crossed the Dnieper River, after which they successfully descended to the banks of the Danube. Thus they became owners of the Great Steppe, which stretched from the Danube to the Irtysh. Russian sources have this place as a Polovetskoe field.
During the creation of the Golden Horde the Polovtsians succeededassimilate many Mongols and successfully impose their own language. It is worth noting that later this language (Kypchak) was put in the basis of many languages (Tatar, Nogay, Kumyk and Bashkir).
Origin of the term
The word "Polovtsy" from Old Russian means"yellow". Many representatives of the people had blond hair, but the majority were representatives of the Caucasian race with an admixture of Mongoloid. However, some scientists say that the origin of the name of the people comes from the place of their stopping - the field. There are many versions, but none is reliable.
The defeat of the Polovtsians was partly due to theirmilitary-democratic system. All the people were divided into several genera. Each family had its own name - the name of the leader. Several genera united in tribes, which created their own villages and cities-winter huts. Each tribal union had its own land, on which food was cultivated. There were also smaller organizations, smoking - the unification of several families. Interestingly, in the kurens could live not only Polovtsians, but also other peoples with whom natural mixing took place.
Kureni united in hordes, at the head of whichthe Khan stood. The Khans had the highest power in the field. In addition to them, there were also such categories as servants and pits. It should also be noted such a division of women, which predestined them to maidens. They were called chaga. The wells are prisoners of war who, in fact, were domestic slaves. They performed hard work, had no rights and were the lowest link on the social ladder. Also there were koshevye - heads of large families. The family consisted of koshes. Each kosh is a separate family and her servants.
The wealth obtained in the battles was divided betweenleaders of military campaigns and nobility. The ordinary warrior received only crumbs from the gentlemen's table. In the event of an unsuccessful campaign, you could go bankrupt and become completely dependent on some noble Polovets.
The military business of the Polovtsi was on top, and thisrecognize even modern scientists. However, history has preserved to this day not too many evidence of Polovtsian soldiers. It's interesting that any man or boy who was able to just carry arms should have been dedicated to devoting his life to military affairs. At the same time, his health, physique, and even more personal desire were not taken into account at all. But since such a device always existed, no one complained about it. It is worth noting that the military case of the Polovtsi was not well organized from the very beginning. It would be more correct to say that it developed in stages. Historians of Byzantium wrote that this people fought with the help of a bow, a curve of a saber and darts.
Each warrior wore special clothing thatreflected his belonging to the army. It was made of sheep's clothing, and was quite dense and comfortable. Interestingly, each soldier-polovets had at his disposal about 10 horses.
The main force of the Polovtsian troops consisted in an easycavalry. In addition to the above tools, the soldiers also fought with sabers and lasso. A little later they had heavy artillery. Such soldiers wore special helmets, shells and chain mail. At the same time, they were often made of a very frightening appearance, in order to further intimidate the enemy.
Also mention should be made of the use of the Polovtsiansheavy crossbows and Greek fire. This they most likely learned in those days when they lived near the Altai. It was these opportunities that made the people practically invincible, for few commanders of that time could boast of such knowledge. The use of Greek fire many times helped the Polovtsy to conquer even very fortified and protected cities.
It is worth to pay tribute to the fact that the army hadsufficient maneuverability. But all the successes in this business came to naught due to the low speed of movement of the troops. Like all nomads, the Polovtsi won many victories due to sharp and unexpected attacks on the enemy, long ambushes and deceptive maneuvers. They often chose to target small villages that could not provide the necessary resistance, let alone defeat the Polovtsians. However, the army was often defeated by the lack of professional fighters. The training of the younger was not given too much attention. To learn any skills was possible only during the raid, when the main occupation was the training of the techniques of primitive combat.
Russian-Polovtsian wars are called long-terma series of serious conflicts, which took place about a century and a half. One of the reasons was the clash of the territorial interests of both sides, for the Cumans were nomadic people, who wanted to conquer new lands. The second reason was that Rus was experiencing hard times of fragmentation, so some rulers recognized the Polovtsy as allies, provoking the wrath and resentment of other Russian princes.
The situation was rather sad until the moment when Vladimir Monomakh interfered, who set as his primary goal the unification of all the lands of Russia.
The history of the battle in Salnica
In 1103, the Russian princes held the firsta trip to the nomadic people in the steppe. By the way, the defeat of the Polovtsians took place after the Doloby Congress. In 1107, Russian troops successfully defeated Bonyaki and Sharukan. Success inspired a spirit of rebelliousness and victory in the souls of Russian warriors, so already in 1109 the Kiev voevoda Dmitr Ivorovich smashed the large villages of the Polovtsy near the Donets into shreds.
The tactics of Monomakh
It is worth noting that the defeat of the Polovtsians (date - 27March 1111) was one of the first in the modern list of Memorable dates of military history of the Russian Federation. The victory of Vladimir Monomakh and other princes was a thought-out political victory, which had far-sighted consequences. The Russians gained the upper hand, while the preponderance in quantitative terms was almost a half-and-a-half.
Today, many are interested, a stunning routAt what prince was the Polovtsy attainable? A huge and invaluable contribution to the contribution of Vladimir Monomakh, who skillfully applied his military gift. He took several important steps. First, he implemented the good old principle, which says that it is necessary to destroy the enemy on its territory and with little blood. Secondly, he successfully applied the transport capabilities of the time, which allowed the timely delivery of infantry soldiers to the battlefield, while retaining their strength and spirit. The third reason for Monomakh's thoughtful tactics was that he even resorted to weather conditions to win the desired victory - he forced the nomads to fight in such weather that did not allow them to fully use all the advantages of their cavalry.
However, this is not the only merit of the prince. Vladimir Monomakh thought over the rout of the Polovtsi to the smallest detail, but to realize the plan, it was necessary to achieve almost impossible! To begin with we will plunge into the moods of that time: Russia was fragmented, the princes kept their territories with their teeth, each strove to act in his own way, and everyone believed that only he was right. However, Monomakh managed to collect, reconcile and unite the wayward, recalcitrant or even stupid princes. To imagine how much wisdom, patience and courage the prince needed, it is very difficult ... He resorted to tricks, tricks and direct persuasions, which could at least somehow affect the princes. The result was gradually achieved, and inter-mediation ceased. It was at the Doloby Congress that the main agreements and agreements between the various princes were reached.
The defeat of the Polovtsi Monomachus also occurredthanks to the fact that he persuaded other princes to use even smerds in order to strengthen the army. Previously, no one had even thought about it, because it was only the warriors who were to fight.
Defeat on Salnica
The campaign began on the second Sunday of the GreatFasting. On February 26, 111 the Russian army under the command of a whole coalition of princes (Svyatopolk, David and Vladimir) headed towards Sharukani. Interestingly, the campaign of the Russian army was accompanied by singing songs, accompanied by priests and crosses. From this many researchers of the history of Russia conclude that the campaign was a crusade. It is believed that this was a deliberate course of Monomakh to raise morale, but the main thing is to inspire the army that it can kill and must win, because God himself tells them this. In fact, Vladimir Monomakh turned this great battle of the Russians against the Polovtsians into a righteous battle for the Orthodox faith.
The army reached the place of battle only after 23 days. The campaign was difficult, but thanks to fighting spirit, songs and enough provisions, the army was pretty, and therefore in full combat readiness. On day 23 the soldiers went to the shores of the Seversky Donets.
It is worth noting that Sharukan surrendered without a fight andquite quickly - already on the 5th day of a severe siege. The inhabitants of the city offered wine and fish to the invaders - a seemingly insignificant fact, but it indicates that people led a settled way of life here. Also, the Russians burned Sugrov. Two settlements that were defeated carried the names of khans. These are the two cities that the army fought in 1107, but then Khan Sharukan fled the battlefield, and Sugrov became a prisoner of war.
On March 24, the first initial battle took place,in which the Cumans invested all their strength. It took place near the Donets. The defeat of the Polovtsians Vladimir Monomakh occurred later, when a battle took place on the Sal'nitsa River. Interestingly, the moon was full. This was the second and most basic battle of the two sides, in which the Russians scored.
The largest defeat by Russian races of the Polovtsians, the datewhich is already known to stir up the entire Polovtsian people, because the latter had a large numerical advantage in combat. They were sure that they would win, however, they could not resist the thoughtful and direct blow of the Russian army. For the people and the soldiers, the defeat of the Polovtsians by Vladimir Monomakh was a very joyful and cheerful event, because a good booty was obtained, many future slaves were captured, and most importantly, a victory was won!
The consequences of this great event were vivid. The defeat of the Polovtsians (year 1111) was a turning point in the history of the Russo-Polovtsian wars. After the battle, the Polovtsians decided only once to approach the borders of the Russian principality. It is interesting that they did it after the departure of Svyatopolk (in two years after the battle). However, the Polovtsi established contact with the new prince Vladimir. In 1116 the Russian army made yet another campaign against the Polovtsi and captured three cities. The final rout of the Polovtsians broke their fighting spirit, and soon they transferred to the service of the Georgian Tsar David the Builder. The Kypchaks did not respond to the Russians last trip, which confirmed their final decline.
A few years later Monomakh sent Yaropolk in search of Polovtsians for the Don, but there was no one there.
Sources of information
Many Russian chronicles narrate about thisan event that has become key and significant for the whole people. The defeat of the Polovtsi Vladimir strengthened his power, as well as the people's faith in their strength and their prince. Despite the fact that in part of the Battle of Salnica described in many sources, the most detailed "portrait" of the battle can be found only in the Ipatiev Chronicle.
An extremely important event was the defeat of the Polovtsians. Russia such a turn of events was very useful. And all this became possible thanks to the efforts of Vladimir Monomakh. How much strength and intelligence he invested in order to rid Rus of this scourge! How thoroughly he thought out the course of the whole operation! He knew that the Russians always played the role of a victim, because the Polovtsy attacked first, and the population of Rus had only to defend themselves. Monomakh realized that it was necessary to attack first, because this would create the effect of surprise, and also transfer the soldiers from the state of the defenders to the state of the attackers, which is more aggressive and strong in the general mass. Realizing that the nomads begin their campaigns in the spring, since they practically do not have foot soldiers, he appointed the defeat of the Polovtsians at the end of winter to deprive them of their main strength. In addition, this move had other advantages. They consisted in the fact that the weather deprived the Polovtsians of their maneuverability, which was simply impossible in winter conditions. It is believed that the Battle of Salnica and the defeat of the Polovtsians in 1111 is the first major and thoughtful victory of Ancient Rus, which became possible thanks to the generalship talent of Vladimir Monomakh.