Summary "So spoke Zarathustra." Philosophical novel by Friedrich Nietzsche. The idea of superman
The philosophical treatise "So Spoke Zarathustra"the most famous work of Friedrich Nietzsche. The book is known for its criticism of the usual Christian morality. In his work, the author made many theses, which aroused lively discussion and fierce criticism. Some of its features, "So spoke Zarathustra," resembles the Bible. It is a fusion of poetry, a philosophical treatise and artistic prose, in which there are many images, metaphors and parables.
The idea of a superman
Nietzsche's book is divided into four parts, each of whichwhich the author published separately. The writer was going to take two more volumes, but did not manage to realize his idea. Each part contains several parables. It is about them that tells a brief summary. "Thus spake Zarathustra" begins with the return of Zarathustra to people after years of wandering. The protagonist is a prophet. His idea of fix is to inform people about his own revelation.
The philosophy of the prophet is the semantic core, onwhich holds the book "So said Zarathustra." The idea of a superman, promoted by the protagonist, became Nietzsche's most popular and famous theory. The main message of the work is given already in the first scene, when Zarathustra descends from the mountains. On the way he meets a hermit. This person confesses that he loves God, and this feeling gives him the strength to live. The scene is not accidental. After this meeting the prophet goes further and is surprised why the hermit still does not know that God is dead. He denies many of the norms that are habitual to ordinary people. This idea is conveyed both the book itself and its brief content. "So spoke Zarathustra" - this is also a treatise on the place of man in nature and society.
Journey to the city
His first sermon wandering philosopher Zarathustrapronounces in the city, when he stumbles upon a crowd gathered around the dancer on a rope. The traveler tells people about the superman, he convinces that an ordinary person is only a link in the chain of development from the monkey to the superman. In addition, Zarathustra publicly announces that God is dead and therefore people should stop believing in unearthly hopes and becoming faithful to the earth.
The stranger's speech amuses the crowd. She ridicules the philosopher and continues to watch the performance. Without mentioning this scene, there can not be a brief summary. "So spoke Zarathustra", although it is a philosophical treatise, at the same time has all the signs of a novel with an evolving storyline and fictional characters. The scene in the city ends in the fact that the tightrope walker falls to the ground and dies. The sage selects his body and leaves the city in the company of Snake and Eagle.
Philosophy of Zarathustra
Zarathustra has its own "Collection of speeches", consisting offrom 22 parables. They reveal the main ideas that Friedrich Nietzsche is trying to convey to the readers. Zarathustra despises the priests and teaches to respect the soldiers. He considers the state "idol" and explains that only after his fall will come the era of a new man. The philosopher convinces to avoid actors, jesters and fame. He criticizes the Christian postulate that evil must be answered with good, considering such behavior as weakness.
Most of his theses Zarathustratells passers-by and random companions. So, with one young man, he shares the idea that in human nature an important place is occupied by evil, and only having overcome it, he can become a superman. Of all the theses of the prophet, one stands out. It is based on faith, which tells the book "So said Zarathustra." Analysis shows that the most important part of the mythology of the philosopher is his prophecy about the approach of the Great Half-day. This event will precede the transition of a person to a new stage of his development. When the Great Noon comes, people will celebrate the decline of their former semi-existence.
In the second part of the book, after a shortlife in public, Zarathustra decides to once again shut herself in her cave, where he spends many more years. Returning from a long imprisonment, he again speaks to people with parables. Criticism of religion is one of the main messages of the book "So Spoke Zarathustra." Quotations on this topic can be given in huge numbers. For example:
- "God is a thought that makes everything straight curved and everything that's standing, rotating."
- "I call evil and hostile a person all this doctrine of a single, complete, immobile, full and enduring!"
- "If there were gods, how could I restrain myself from being a god!" Therefore, there are no gods. "
The philosopher derides the equality of people. He believes that this concept is a fiction, invented to punish the strong and exalt the weak. Proceeding from this, the prophet calls to give up compassion for the sake of creation. People should not be equal. Nietzsche repeats this thought several times in the pages of his book "So Spoke Zarathustra." The contents of the chapters show how he consistently criticizes all the foundations and practices customary to society.
Mockery of wisdom and culture
Through the mouths of Zarathustra, Nietzsche says that everythingthe so-called sages only serve the uneducated people and their superstitions, while interfering with the truth. Its real carriers live not in cities among the crowd, but in remote deserts, away from human fuss. Part of the truth is that all living things somehow seek power. It is because of this pattern that the weak must obey the strong. Zarathustra considers the will to power a much more important human quality than the will to live.
Criticism of culture is another characteristic feature"So said Zarathustra." Reviews of contemporaries show how they disdainfully treated Nietzsche, who considered the greater part of human heritage only the result of worshiping an illusory fictitious reality. For example, Zarathustra openly laughs at poets, whom he calls too feminine and superficial.
Spirit of Gravity
In the third part of the philosophical novel by Zarathustranew parables and images appear. He tells his few listeners about the Spirit of Gravity - a creature reminiscent of either a dwarf or a mole trying to make a sage lame. This demon tried to drag Zarathustra to the bottom, into the abyss full of doubts. And only at the cost of great efforts the protagonist managed to escape.
He explains to the public that the Spirit of Gravity is givenevery person from birth. Periodically, he reminds himself of himself in the form of the words "evil" and "good." Zarathustra denies these concepts. He believes that there is no good or evil. There are only natural desires of every person who should not hide under any circumstances.
Attitude towards fate and vice
The book "So Spoke Zarathustra," the meaning of whichinterpreted by philosophers and other researchers in different ways, offers the reader a new look at the seemingly familiar things. For example, the protagonist refuses to talk about some universal way - the universal way of salvation and right life, which is discussed in all popular religious teachings. On the contrary, Zarathustra believes that every person has his own way, and everyone should form his own attitude to morality in his own way.
The Prophet explains any fate onlyset of accidents. He praises such features as love of power, voluptuousness and selfishness, considering them only healthy natural passions inherent in a strong soul in a sublime body. Predicting the next epoch of superhumans, Zarathustra hopes that all these features of character will be inherent in a man of a new type.
An ideal person
According to Zarathustra's ideas, in order to becomestrong, it is enough to learn to be free from any external circumstances. Really powerful people can afford to constantly rush into any chance. Power must be manifested in everything. Men must always be ready for war, and women - for the birth of children.
One of the theses of Zarathustra says the uselessness of society and any social contract. Attempts to live together by some rules only prevent the strong from triumphing over the weak.
the last part
In the fourth volume, Nietzsche talks about old ageZarathustra. Having lived to an advanced age, he continues to believe in his sermons and live according to the main slogan of the superman, which says: "Be who you really are." Once a prophet hears a cry for help and leaves his cave. On the way, he meets a lot of characters: the Seer, the Conscientious Spirit, the Wizard, the Ugly Man, the Beggar and the Shadow.
Zarathustra invites them to her cave. So the philosophical novel is drawing to its end. The prophet's guests listen to his sermons, which he already told before not throughout the entire book. In essence, this time he summarizes all his ideas in a generalized way, putting them into a harmonious teaching. Next, Friedrich Nietzsche describes the supper (similar to the Gospel), where everyone eats lamb, praises Zarathustra's knowledge and prays. The owner says that the Great Noon will soon come. In the morning, he leaves his cave. This concludes the book itself and its brief content. "So said Zarathustra" - a novel that could be continued if Nietzsche had managed to fully realize his creative intent.