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Su-37 multipurpose fighter
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Su-37 Terminator? multipurpose fighter based on the Su-35 multipurpose fighter. A further increase in the flight performance of the machine was possible only with the installation of an engine with a thrust vector variable in flight. Work in this direction for several years were conducted in the Design Bureau. A.M. Lyuli, and the tests of the prototype were conducted in the spring of 1989 on the T-10-26 by Viktor Pugachev. Then only one engine was installed on the plane, the nozzle of which could change its position in the vertical plane, for which the pilot switched the toggle switch in the cockpit. To prepare a demonstration model of a fighter with a deflected thrust vectoring, they took one of the serial Su-35s, installed two AL-31FPs on it, and installed a side control stick and a strainer (a new type of engine control knob) in the cockpit. After appropriate modifications of the aircraft and engine control systems, the name of the car was changed to Su-37. April 2, 1996 test pilot OKB E.I.Frolov raised the plane to the sky, and on August 18 of the same year, the Su-37 was first shown at an aviation festival in Tushino in Moscow.
During flight tests, the Su-37 demonstrated unique maneuverability capabilities. For the first time, new maneuvers were developed, associated with reaching the extremely large angles of attack and near-zero speeds. Technical solutions implemented in the design of the new fighter provided: the possibility of launching strikes against any air enemy (including the inconspicuous aircraft); multichannel and algorithmic security of all information and sighting systems; attack ground targets without entering the enemy air defense zone; low-altitude flight with overflight and bypass ground obstacles; automated group actions on aerial and ground targets; counteraction to the adversary's radio-electronic and opto-electronic means; automation of all phases of flight and combat use.
The aircraft is made according to the scheme? Unstable integral triplane ?, combining a normal aerodynamic scheme with a front horizontal tail. The airframe design is generally similar to the Su-27, however, when creating the Su-35/37, new aluminum-lithium alloys were used, the use of composite materials was significantly expanded.A new wing with increased relative thickness has been developed for the aircraft, which allows it to accommodate a larger volume of fuel.
Horizontal tail is a differential deflectable stabilizer, each console of which has its own high-speed electro-hydraulic drive. CSR is included in the general digital radio remote control system of the aircraft and is able to deviate in the range of angles -50 / + 10 °. In addition to improving the characteristics of stability and controllability at high angles of attack (in particular, the Su-35/37 almost completely succeeded in eliminating the shaking, which makes piloting and aiming other types of fighters on similar modes very difficult), PGO performs several other important functions. In particular, it contributes to the forward displacement of the aerodynamic focus of the aircraft, which leads to a significant decrease in static stability.
Is it possible to control it through PGO? the degree of instability of the aircraft, which varies depending on the load on the external nodes of the suspension. When flying at low altitudes in a turbulent atmosphere, the MPS is an active and passive damper of longitudinal vibrations and shaking, which increases the safety of the flight,reduces the load on the airframe and increases the comfort and, consequently, the combat capability of the pilot in the conditions of bumpiness. Aerodynamic improvements applied on the aircraft, allowed to reduce the loads on the fuselage and the root of the wing, which, in turn, ensured the achievement of a steady overload of 10 units. without strengthening the airframe design (the maximum steady-state overload achieved on other types of fighter aircraft does not exceed 9 units at present).
Compared with the Su-27, the height and chord of the fighter's vertical tail are somewhat increased. Caissons of carinae made of CFRP are also used as fuel tanks. The landing gear was reinforced (due to the increased take-off weight of the aircraft), the nose gear is equipped with two wheels. Under the wing, two external suspension assemblies were added (their total number increased to 14), which made it possible to increase the weight of the weapon from 6,000 to 8,000 kg. The aircraft is equipped with an ejection seat KD-36DM with a backrest angle of 30 °. Compared with the Su-27, the oxygen supply is increased, containers with food and water supply, as well as a waste disposal device are installed.
The Su-37 prototype aircraft (known as the board? 711?) Is equipped with AL-31FP engines with thrust vector control system through the pitch channel. TRDTsF is equipped with a digital electronic control system integrated with the aircraft control system. Axisymmetric controlled nozzle is deflected in a vertical plane at an angle of? 15 ° with the help of two pairs of hydraulic cylinders fed from an all-aircraft hydraulic system (angular velocity of movement of nozzles? 30 ° / s).
The Su-37 serial fighters are supposed to be equipped with advanced AL-37FP engines (2 x 14,500kgs), which are a further development of the AL-31 turbo engine. In TRDTsF provided cooling of the turning part of the nozzle at full afterburner mode and maximum angle of rotation. As the working fluid in the cylinders used aviation fuel. The thrust vector control system allows the aircraft to be controlled both in the pitch and yaw plane, which is achieved by the misalignment of the thrust direction of the right and left engines. The aircraft is equipped with a retractable rod of the fuel receiver of the in-flight refueling system.
Su-37 is equipped with a digital electro-remote control system (EDSU) aircraft.Is it made according to the four-channel redundancy scheme in the longitudinal channel and the three-channel scheme? in the channels of lateral movement. To increase the reliability of all the calculators EDSU work in parallel. The automated aircraft control system provides control of all steering surfaces, as well as the deviation of the thrust vector of engines by moving the aircraft control handle. At the same time, flight safety is achieved by automatically limiting overloads of the aircraft depending on the flight mass and flight modes. There is an automatic exit from the corkscrew. The installation of a new onboard equipment complex with increased power consumption required an increase in the power and power supply capacity. Compared to the Su-27, new electric generators and hydraulic pumps have been installed. On the Su-37, a side low-speed control knob and a fixed strain gauge throttle were installed.
Aviation avionics includes systems using elements of artificial intelligence and provides proactive damage to air targets (including subtle ones) at distances that guarantee against the possibility of an enemy's retaliatory strike.All stages of the flight were automated, including combat use of airborne targets, attacks of ground targets without entering the enemy’s air defense zone, counteraction from radio and optoelectronic EW equipment. According to information received from the navigation system, the ACS solves the problems of flying along a route with a flight over the programmed intermediate points of the route, returning to the airfield, pre-landing maneuvering and landing approach to a height of 60m. There is a mode of automatic flight control at extremely low altitude, with a detour or bypass of ground obstacles. There is an automatic target designation for actions on both aerial and ground targets.
Su-37 is equipped with a complex that includes a pulse-Doppler radar with a fixed phased antenna array and a radar rear-view radar. The advanced optoelectronic sighting system of the fighter includes a thermal imager combined with a laser range finder-target designator. It provides detection, recognition and automatic tracking of several air targets at a long-range simultaneously. Optical-location system combined with the radar and advanced helmet-mounted sight of the pilot in a single complex.The aircraft is equipped with the equipment of an automated protected target data exchange system, which allows better coordination of the actions of several fighters engaged in group combat. The defense complex includes optical sensors for warning about attacking enemy missiles, a new generation of electronic reconnaissance station, active suppression systems operating in the optical and radar ranges, as well as means for setting up passive radar and infrared interference. The Su-37 has a new information and control field of the cockpit with four large-format liquid crystal color (unlike the Su-35, where the indicators are monochrome) multifunctional indicators and a wide-angle indicator on the windshield. The indicators used liquid crystal matrix. Communication equipment includes VHF and HF radio stations, telecode protected equipment, and a satellite communication system.
Armament fighter includes the traditional family of aircraft? Su? gun GSH-301 (30mm). At 14 nodes external suspension can accommodate various weapons with a total weight of up to 8000 kg.In total there are more than 70 variants of external suspension, including air-to-air missiles. medium-range R-77 with active radar homing missiles? air-to-air? medium-range R-27 family with semi-active radar or passive infrared guidance, highly maneuverable air-to-air missiles short-range R-73 with TGS, X-31 class missiles? air-ship? and? air-radar ?, missiles? air-surface? X-29 family, bombs and bomb cassettes in caliber up to 500kg.
Length, m 22,183
Height, m 6,433
Wing area, m 63,5
Empty weight, kg 18500
Maximum take-off weight, kg 34,000
Maximum speed at the ground, km / h 1400
Maximum speed at height, km / h 2500
Practical range, 650 km
Practical ceiling, km 18
Combat load, kg 8000
Crew, man 1
EnginesType Model Number of single, kgf
TRD AL-37FP 2 14500
Aviation artillery weaponsType Model Caliber, mm Amount Ammunition
gun GSh-301 30 1 150
Aviation aids Option Type Model
1 UR class? Air-to-air? medium and long range R-27RE, R-27TE, R-77
2 UR class? Air-to-air? short range R-73, R-73M, R-60M
3 SD with television, telecommand, thermal imaging, and also laser-guided X-25, X-29, X-59
4 UR anti-radar X-31, X-58
5 UR anti-ship winged and airballistic X-31A, X-35, X-15
6 bombs up to 1500 kg
7 bomb cassettes
8 NAR C-8, C-13, C-25
R-27 medium range missile
With the beginning of the development in 1974 of 4th generation fighter jets MiG-29 and Su-27 GosMKB? Vympel? and the PKK was given the task to develop for them advance projects of missiles? air-to-air? K-27. According to the results of the contest, the winner was the project “Vympel”, to which further development was entrusted.
The design was carried out under the guidance of P.P. Dementieva and V.T. Korsakov. Initially, it was supposed to create two standardized missiles: the K-27A for the MiG-29 and the K-27B for the Su-27, differing in power units and launch ranges. Each modification of the rocket provided for the use of thermal and radar homing heads. In this case, both the engines and the GOS should have been interchangeable, i.e. rockets were created on a modular basis. For the first time in domestic practice, it was decided to abandon the ailerons and implement control over all channels of the differential deviation of the rudders.For this were used rudders unique shape? ?butterfly? (with negative contraction).
Fundamentally new technical solutions were applied in the development of onboard equipment. For the radar GPS, the NIIP specialists chose a combined operation scheme: on the main leg of the flight, the control is carried out over the air from the carrier, and at a distance of 25 km from the GOS target it captures it for auto tracking and goes into homing mode. As a result, it was possible to increase the launch range by a factor of 2–2.5. For the first time, a three-axis stabilization system was used in the GOS. Analog and digital computing devices provide the implementation of adaptive logic when exposed to natural and organized interference.
Specialists from TsAGI and NII-2 participated in the work on the rocket. It was considered several layout options. In 1977, after the appearance of the first prototype carriers, the flight tests of the rocket began. Working out radar? Ruby? and GOS was conducted on the Tu-124LL flying laboratory. The first launches of the K-27 were performed in 1979 with the modified MiG-23ML. In 1980, he also carried out the first launches on targets (parachute and La-17).Further tests were conducted using the MiG-29 and continued until September 1984. The serial production of the R-27 (? Product 470?) Was organized in 1984. In 1987, the rocket was put into service (in the R-27ER and R-27ET versions). In 1991, the rocket development team was awarded the State Prize.
The R-27 family of missiles are designed to intercept and destroy all types of airplanes and helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles in mid-range and long-range air combat, during autonomous and group aircraft carrier operations, day and night, in simple and complex weather conditions, from any direction, against the background of land and sea, with active information, fire and maneuverable opposition of the enemy.
The missiles of the R-27 family are made according to the aerodynamic configuration of a duck. Modular design: missiles have the same warheads, control units and power supply, carrying surfaces and rudders. Differ power plants and homing. Wings of small lengthening trapezoid in the plan. The handlebars have a tapering shape to the base (the chord is 2 times smaller at the root than at the tips), due to the specificity of the supersonic interference of the hull and moving rudders of a large area.The rudders are located near the aerodynamic focus of the rocket, which provides direct control of the lifting force and makes it possible to intercept maneuvering targets along optimal trajectories. Hydraulic steering gear drives with hydraulic pump (for the first time on domestic rockets of this class).
In the nose of the rocket body is GOS. The compartment located behind it fuze and autopilot. In the third compartment there is an energy-drive unit (turbogenerator, hydraulic pump drive and steering gear). The fourth block contains a warhead (high-explosive or rod). In the fifth compartment is the power plant, consisting of a solid-propellant rocket engine with a titanium case. The engines are installed in two types: single-mode (diameter 230 mm, length 1500 mm) and two-mode (R-27E, diameter 260 mm, length 2200 mm). Docking bays carried out by means of locking devices of the eccentric type. The troops of the rocket arrive assembled (but with undocked rudders and wings). Missiles are used with rail launchers APU-470 or ejection AKU-470 (only modifications with radar seeker).
The control system of missiles in addition to the GOS includes an inertial navigation system with radio correction. Targeting can be carried out from airborne radar, direction-finding or optical-electronic sights of the aircraft carrier, from the helmet of the pilot. It is possible to launch a rocket in the direction of the enemy's aircraft, followed by an autonomous capture in flight. All-view missiles R-27 attack the target at any initial position in the field of target angles of? 50 ° for radar seeker and? 55 ° for heat. Overload media at the time of launch can be up to 5 units. The R-27 missiles intercept air targets flying at speeds up to 3500 km / h in the altitude range from 20 m to 27 km. The maximum excess (downgrading) of the target relative to the carrier can reach 10 km. The combined use of R-27 missiles with various homing heads in an aircraft’s ammunition assembly increases the immunity and effectiveness of the armament system of the aviation complexes as a whole.
The analogue of the R-27 is the American AIM-7F rocket? Sparrow ?. The missiles of the R-27 family are distinguished by a greater range of launch. In addition, the American missile is not an option with a heat seeker.
Tactical and technical characteristics Modification Р-27АЭР Р-27Р Р-27ЭР Р-27Т Р-27ЭТ
Caliber mm 260 230 260 230 260
Length, mm 4780 4080 4780 3795 4490
Wingspan mm 970 970 970 970 970
Missile weight, kg 350 253 355 246 347
Warhead weight, kg 39 39 39 39 39
Range of launch, km 0.5-70 0.5-41 0.5-66 0.5-32 0.5-53
Speed, M to 4.5 to 4.5 to 4.5 to 4.5 to 4.5
Target overload, g 8 8 8 8 8
Type of warhead С С С С С
Type of homing head IU with RK + PRLS IR
Homing Head Model 9B-1101K
R-77 medium-range missile
Missile class? Air-to-air? the fourth generation of the R-77 (RVV-AE,? product 170?) developed by GosMKB? Vympel? under the leadership of General Designer GA Sokolovsky. Designed to destroy super-maneuverable aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles. Flight tests of the rocket began in 1984. Adopted in 1994. Currently, it is equipped with MiG-21? 93, MiG-29SD, MiG-29SMT, MiG-31M, Su-35, Su-37 fighters.
The rocket is equipped with a wing of small elongation. Lattice handlebars are controlled by low-power electric drives. A characteristic feature of the rocket is a combined guidance system, coupled with all-turning lattice steering wheels, ensuring the defeat of fifth generation of the maneuverable fighters at long ranges.Inertial navigation system has the ability to retarget in flight. The active radar homing head does not require target illumination with a carrier locator. Warhead rod with microkumulative elements. The rocket can be used both from the wing holders, and from the ejection intra-fuselage.
The rocket provides destruction of targets from any direction at all angles, day and night, in simple and complex meteorological conditions, in REB conditions, against the background of the earth and water surface according to the principle of “let and forget”, including with multichannel shelling. Able to attack targets at a angle of up to 90 ° relative to the aircraft carrier.
Tactical and technical characteristicsCaliber, mm 200
Length, mm 3500
Wingspan, mm 400
Mass of rocket, kg 700
Warhead weight, kg 22
Starting range, km 0.3-100
Target overload, g to 12
Type of warhead SK
Type of homing head IU + ARLSN
Starting device APU-170, AKU-170
Short range missile firing R-73
Guided missile? Air-to-air? short-range P-73 developed by the NGO? Lightning? in 1982. This is one of the first in the world all-range short-range missiles capable of hitting targets not only on catch-up, but also on counter-intersecting courses. Adopted in 1983.Currently, it is equipped with all modifications of the MiG-29, MiG-31 and Su-27 fighters, deck-based Su-33 and Yak-141, front-line bombers Su-34, attack aircraft Su-25TM (Su-39), Ka-50 and helicopters Ka-52.
R-73 is designed to intercept and destroy highly maneuverable manned and unmanned aerial attack and reconnaissance vehicles of the enemy day and night, from any direction, into the front and rear hemispheres of the target, against the background of the earth and with active electronic countermeasures. The possibility of hitting automatic drifting balloons. Design features and control systems allow the rocket to dramatically change the flight path with small turn radii and overloads of up to 40 units.
The R-73 missile is equipped with an infrared homing head of increased sensitivity and noise immunity. Warhead rod. Undermining the warhead, depending on the version, is a laser or radio fuses. A distinctive feature of the rocket design is the presence of gas-dynamic interceptors, allowing you to control the thrust vector of the propulsion system, which gives the rocket high maneuverability.In the bow in front of the rudders, destabilizers are installed, reducing local angles of attack and protecting the rudders from disruption of flow and a drop in efficiency during abrupt maneuvers. The automatic control system, made on the basis of microelectronics and equipped with sensors of aerodynamic angles, is comparable in volume to the operations performed with aircraft ACS. The rocket attacks the target at any initial position in the range of targeting angles ≤ 45 ° at angular velocities of the line of sight up to 60 ° / s. The target designation of the homing missile R-73 can be issued by the helmet of the target designation of the pilot. Since 1983, the refinement and modernization of the R-73 was carried out in the GosMKB? Vympel ?.
Tactical and technical characteristics Modification R-73E R-73EM
Caliber 170 170 mm
Length mm 2900 2900
Wingspan, mm 510 510
Scope of wheels, mm 380 380
Mass of the rocket, kg 105 105
Warhead weight, kg 47 47
Starting range, km 0.3-30 0.3-40
Target height, km 0.02-20 0.02-20
Target overload, g to 12 to 12
Type of warhead С С
Type of homing head VR IR VR IR
Engine solid rocket motor with UHT
Short range missile firing R-60
Development of a missile? Air-to-air? short-range P-60 (? product 62?) began in 1967 in the OKB? Lightning? under the leadership of Mr R. Bisnovata.This is the first rocket in the world, capable of starting when the carrier is overloaded up to 7 units (the rocket design can withstand 42-fold overload). Serial production was organized at the Tbilisi Aviation Plant. Adopted in 1974. It is used on many combat aircraft: MiG-21, MiG-23M, MiG-25PD, MiG-29, MiG-31, Su-15, Su-17, Su-24M, Su-25, Yak-38.
The rocket is equipped with an infrared homing head? Mosquito ?. The warhead is a high-explosive fragmentation, which serves to detonate the radio fuse. To reduce the stability and increase the efficiency of the rudders, destabilizing plates were installed in the nose. It is used with under-wing launchers APU-68? 1, APU-68? 11.
When starting the rocket is accelerated by the engine. The final part of the trajectory passes by inertia. When undermining the warhead, the grid of striking elements (specially connected and laid rods), unfolding, forms a ring of great saturation, literally cutting through the plane of the enemy. If necessary, it can be used for ground small-sized heat-contrast purposes.
In combat conditions, the R-60 missiles were first used in 1982 in Lebanon. During the launch, there were cases when the rocket precisely fell into the nozzle of the aircraft engine.