Russian artist Vasily Polenov: biography, creativity, and interesting facts
In the second half of the 19th century, the rise of Russian landscape painting begins, one of the brightest representatives of this area of painting is the outstanding artist Polenov Vasily Dmitrievich. His brushes belong to such works as "Moscow Yard", "Golden Autumn", "Grandmother's Garden", etc. This article is devoted to the description of the biography, works of the famous artist.
Artist's biography: early childhood
Russian artist Vasily Polenov was born in St. Petersburg on the twentieth of May 1844, in a family of wealthy hereditary nobles. The father of the future artist, Dmitry Polenov, was famous as an archeologist and biographer, and his mother, Maria Alekseevna, was engaged in painting and writing children's stories. Vasily spent his childhood years in the capital, but the family in the summer often went to the hereditary estate of grandmother Maria Alekseevna, which was located in the Tambov province.The virgin nature, stories and legends of the grandmother had a strong influence on the future painter, in addition, she often organized art competitions in which Vasily and his sister Elena won most often. Also, the love of painting Vasily Polenov, and attached to the mother, who was engaged in drawing with her son, besides, she later hired him a tutor. They became the famous artist and teacher Pavel Chistyakov, who at that time was still himself studying at the Academy of Art. From the very beginning, Chistyakov introduced Basil to a close study of nature.
V.D. Polenov in his student years
In 1861, Vasily Polenov entered to study at the men's gymnasium, which was located in Petrozavodsk. After graduating from the gymnasium, the future artist in 1863 entered the St. Petersburg University in the Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. But Polenov did not leave his passion for painting, and after completing classes at the faculty, he attended an art academy. In addition to drawing lessons, the young man was fond of singing, he often visited the opera house and sang in the student choir. Soon, it became quite difficult to combine studies at the university and painting classes, and Vasily decided to take a sabbatical and fully devote his time to drawing.In 1867, Vasily Polenov graduated from the Art Academy with a silver medal. After that, the young man returns to the university, but is transferred to another faculty - law.
In 1867, Vasily Polenov makes his first trip abroad, and there he visits the Paris World Exhibition. The artist was most impressed by the section of the exhibition, which was dedicated to the folk arts and crafts of various countries. After her visit, the artist fired up to get a gold medal from the Academy of Art. The first step to receive the award was the painting by Vasily Polenov of the picture on the biblical story. Soon in 1869, the artist presented the work "Job and his friends", which was awarded a small award. This meant that the artist could continue to participate in the competition. A new stage of the competition was writing a picture on the theme "Resurrection of the daughter of Jara". Two artists reached the final of the competition - Vasily Polenov and Ivan Repin. Both presented wonderful canvases. The jury of the competition unexpectedly did not choose one winner and presented the gold medals to both Polenov and Repin.In the future, the artists became close, and in 1872 together decide to go on a trip abroad.
Together with Ilya Efimovich Repin, Venice, Florence and Paris were visited, which impressed Polenov so much that he decided to stay here to live. In Paris, Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov writes the picture “The Arrest of Countess Dettremon”, for which he later received the post of academician in the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1874, the painter, at the invitation of I. Ye. Repin, came to Normandy, where he worked on the painting "The Norman Coast". In 1876 he returned to Russia and became the court painter of the imperial family. Soon he, along with Alexander, the heir to the throne, goes to war with Turkey.
After the war, Vasily Polenov returned to Moscow and became a teacher in the school of painting and architecture. Many successful artists later passed through his hands: Levitan, Golovin, Korovin and many others. At this time, the artist continues to write, and in 1877 he presents his painting “Moscow Yard”, which was very warmly received, and he became the ancestor of a new genre in painting - an intimate landscape.During this period, the artist adjoins the environment of peredvizhniki artists, among whom he at that time had many acquaintances. In 1882, Vasily Dmitrievich married the daughter of a merchant Natalya Yakunchikova, from this marriage the couple had 6 children.
At the end of the 19th century, Vasily Dmitrievich, being a very famous and popular artist, decides to leave noisy Moscow and move to the Russian outback, to Tula. Here, on the banks of the Oka, the artist built a house, and workshops were attached to him, where later Polenov taught drawing local children. The estate founded by Polenov was named Borok.
V.D. Polenov under Soviet rule
During the revolutions, Vasily Polenov was in his Borok estate and was actively engaged in teaching local children, arranged with them drama groups and taught them to draw. At this time, he wrote one of his best works "Spill on the Oka", which was highly noted by critics. In general, the Soviet government was positive about the personality of Polenov and did not oppress him. Moreover, in 1924 an exhibition of his paintings took place in the Tretyakov Gallery, and in 1926 V.D. Polenov was awarded the title of People's Artist.This attitude of the authorities towards the individual is largely due to the fact that the artist did not criticize, at least publicly, the new government and that he was a bright philanthropist and sought to improve public education in the country. Vasily Polenov died July 18, 1927 in his estate, right here on the banks of the Oka River he was buried.
In addition to his work in painting, V. D. Polenov was also an active philanthropist and philanthropist. So, in 1915, together with S. I. Mamontov, he opened the first institution in Russia and the world, which was supposed to help the village and factory theaters. The new institution later received the name Polenovsky House. At the end of 1916, according to the design of Polenov and with his own money, a mansion was built in the main building, which included an auditorium for 300 people, a library, rooms for rehearsals and workshops. In the years of revolution, the activity of this institution was actually suspended. In the early 20s Polenovsky House was subordinated to the People's Commissariat of Education and renamed. Soon the building was returned a new name, and it became known as the House of Theater Enlightenment. V.D. Polenova.During this period, the institution organized the work of literary, musical, artistic, technical and school theaters, in addition, the publication of its own journal, the People's Theater, began. But the main activity of the house is the development of theaters and other forms of creative initiative in the countryside. In 1930, the institution was renamed again and received the name TsDISK. N.K. Krupskaya. This name survived until 1991, when it was renamed the Russian House of Folk Art. In 2016, the building was again named after the artist V. D. Polenov.
Review of the artist. Painting Vasily Polenova "Moscow Yard"
After returning Polenov in 1877 from abroad, where the artist got acquainted with the canvases of outstanding artists of the world, he stops in Moscow and rents an apartment near the Church of the Savior on the Sands. It was the view from this window that served the artist as the idea of writing the picture. In 1878, Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov presented the Moscow Courtyard at the exhibition of the Wanderers. This was his debut work in this society, and he called it a trial. But to his great surprise, the picture was a resounding success, and he himself made one of the most recognizable artists of her time.After the end of the exhibition the canvas of Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov "Moscow Yard" was bought by Tretyakov for his gallery.
Description of the picture
The picture shows the usual Moscow court of the second half of the 19th century, with its mansions standing next door and simpler houses, sparkling in the sun with domes of temples and overgrown with grass. In the background, a peasant girl, carrying buckets, goes along the path to the well, and chickens graze alongside her. Not far from her, basking in the sun, stands a drawn horse, she is waiting for her master and is ready to set off at any moment. On the middle ground you can see three small children, two of them are looking at something in the grass, and the third is separated from them and crying, but no one pays attention to him. At the forefront is a girl slightly older than those three, she is very enthusiastically considering a plucked flower. In general, the artist depicted the everyday bustle on the canvas, which is beautiful in its daily routine and serenity.
Vasily Polenov: "Grandma's Garden"
A distinctive feature of Vasily Dmitrievich's work is the fact that the artist was able to convey the mood of his characters in his paintings. "Grandma's Garden" is a clear proof of this.The canvas was created by Polenov at the same time, and in the same place as the Moscow Courtyard. This picture combines the landscape with the genre scene.
Description of the picture
In the foreground, the artist depicted two people, a granddaughter and her elderly grandmother, walking together along a path that passes through a long-groomed garden. Grandmother is dressed in an old outfit of dark color, and her granddaughter is dressed in the fashion of that time, in a dress of soft white color. The figures of grandmothers and granddaughters are the opposition of old and new times. This still emphasizes the old mansion in the background, which was once stately and well-groomed, but now the house is very dilapidated and has lost its former greatness. But still viewing the picture does not cause a feeling of sadness, but rather, causes a feeling of nostalgia for the past time and gives hope for a bright future.
Painting Vasily Polenova "Golden Autumn"
This picture was painted by V.D. Polenov in 1893 in his Borok manor located on the banks of the Oka River. Vasily Dmitrievich became addicted to landscape themes during his trip abroad with Ilya Repin, and she began to occupy an important place in his work.Distinctive features of the landscape of Polenov are the purity of color, the clarity of the pattern, meticulously verified composition. The painting of Vasily Dmitrievich “Golden Autumn” is a vivid representative of this style of the artist.
Description of the picture
In the background, the picture shows the bend of the Oka River, the whole composition of the work is built around it. Thus, the yellowed autumn leaves of birch organically harmonize with the blue smooth surface of the river and the same endless sky with its scanty clouds. Also striking is the majestic oak, whose foliage still remains green. In general, this picture is the personification of a new artistic genre - an intimate landscape.
Thus, Vasily Polenov is one of the most talented artists of the 19th century who wrote his works in the landscape genre. Creativity Polenov was popular, both during the life of the artist, and after his death, and his paintings were exhibited in the most famous art galleries.