Red cemetery. The history of the cemetery in St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Podolsk
In the distant past, cemeteries were created only in thean exception. The deceased Christians were originally buried in the catacombs, a little later in the building of the churches; in the XIV century, only noble people began to bury in churches, the main yard of burial for ordinary citizens was the churchyard.
The urban population grew, the territories of the churchyards became scarce and burial began to be carried out on the outskirts of cities. In the XVII century with the purpose of observing sanitation it was not allowed to organize burials in churches, and in the XIX century it was not allowed to organize cemeteries inside villages and cities. The first Russian legislation on the organization of cemeteries appeared during the time of Catherine the Great and was prescribed in the statutes of the physician. According to this set of rules, it was forbidden:
- use abandoned cemeteries for agriculture;
- construction on the territory of cemeteries;
- to transfer from the cemetery remains or coffins;
- transfer the territory of the pogosts into private ownership;
- conducting any economic activity in the burial grounds.
The person who bought the place in the cemetery did not become its owner, but got the right to use this place for burial.
This legislation primarily concerned the cemeteries of St. Petersburg, but eventually spread to the cemeteries throughout Russia.
Red Cemetery in St. Petersburg
One of the cemeteries in St. Petersburg is called "Red", thanks to the river Krasny, which flows through it. The area of the necropolis is about 30 hectares.
History of the churchyard
The cemetery was formed approximately in 1776 (according to some sources, in 1757) with the participation of parishioners of the church of St. Peter Metropolitan, who was in the village of Ulyanka.
On the graveyard, residents of nearby settlements of Ulyanka and Avtovo were buried. On the territory of the cemetery in 1776 a wooden Kazan chapel was erected.
In 1824, a flood occurred in St. Petersburg, inthe result of which the villages of Avtovo and Ulyanka were flooded, the buildings were destroyed, 152 people died. All the dead were buried in the Red Cemetery in a common grave, the tombstone of which has survived until now.
From the XIX to the XX century, the cemetery was a city-wide cemetery, and residents of the adjacent districts of St. Petersburg were buried there.
In 1901, the church of the Mother of God of Kazan was built on the territory of the churchyard, but the fire of 1941 completely destroyed it.
During the Great Patriotic War the regionwas in the front line. On the territory of the cemetery were mass graves of soldiers killed in the defense of Leningrad, and ordinary residents of the city who did not survive the blockade.
Since 1961 the Red Cemetery of St. Petersburgbecomes semi-closed and revived only in 2000, with the construction of the church in the name of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. It is an object of cultural heritage of the Russian Federation.
Here are buried: opera singer, close friend of Blok AA - Andreeva-Delmas LA; opera singer, professor at the Leningrad Conservatory - Brian M. I .; sculptor -Evseev S.A .; actress - Kaziko OG; writer - Soloviev LV and many other outstanding figures of science and art.
Red Cemetery in Nizhny Novgorod
In Nizhny Novgorod, this cemetery appeared in the 90'sYears of the XIX century and at first it was Old Believer. Since its foundation has different names. Until the 30s of the 20th century, the inhabitants of the city called it "Novoe", but they also use the name "Krasnoe", which was fixed after the graveyard because of the color of the brick wall that encloses the cemetery. In the official documentation, the graveyard is now called "Cemetery along Krasnaya Street". The most common name of the Nizhny Novgorod cemetery is "Bugrovskoe", in honor of the merchant NA Bugrov, a well-known patron of the city.
History of the churchyard in Nizhny Novgorod
Bugrov and all members of his family were buried in the city cemetery, which has not survived until our days, but was destroyed in the Soviet years and built up in residential areas.
The modern cemetery inherited from the "Bugrovsky"only your name. It was also formed as Old Believers. In the early twentieth century, the Red Cemetery began to improve. The territory was fenced with a wall of red bricks, the Church of the Assumption of the Mother of God was built. By 1916, the area of the churchyard reached 16 hectares.
A spooky period in the history of the cemetery is associated with the yearsStalinist repression. Until 1938 in the mass graves on the territory of the graveyard were buried nameless prisoners and executed, in honor of which the memorial is now erected. Now the Red Cemetery is closed for burial.
A lot of people are buried in the Bugrovsky Cemeteryknown Novgorodians: writers Melnikov-Pechersky PI and Kochin N.I .; scientists-shipbuilders Alekseyev R. Ye. and Kalashnikov V.I.; People's Artists of the USSR Samarina A. N. and Kasyanov A. A .; daughter of Maxim Gorky; Decembrist Annenkov IA and his wife Annenkova-Goebl PE and many other outstanding residents of the city and country.
Cemetery of the city of Podolsk
The cemetery "Krasnaya Gorka" is located in the cityPodolsk, Moscow region. Officially bears the name "Podolsk city cemetery", but the townspeople call it "Krasnaya Gorka" - in honor of the elevation on which it is located.
Today the cemetery Krasnaya Gorka in Podolsk is half-closed, burials are carried out only in family graves.
The history of Podilsky necropolis
On the right bank of the Pakhra river near Podilthere was an old city cemetery, but it was completely destroyed in the years of the Soviet power, and in its place the park is broken. Currently, the chapel is erected on the territory of the park, in memory of all those who were buried there.
In the territory of the modern churchyard is locatedthe Church of St. Nicholas the Holy Martyr, three mass graves of soldiers of the Great Patriotic War, the graves of famous residents of the city: Professor and People's Artist of Russia Igor Agafonnikov, Colonel Pechenevsky AD; the chairman of the city executive committee of the city of Podolsk, A. Shcheglova; turner Vasily Zvezdochkin (who created a matryoshka doll) and many others.