Natural Resources of China: an overview, assessment, use and interesting facts
The natural resources of the most ancient state of the world, China, are quite extensive and diverse. What makes this situation? Large territorial dimensions, the location of the country in several climatic zones, complex geological structure, access to three completely different seas. This all points to the wealth of natural resources in China.
Environmental Assessment of China
The area of the state is about 9.6 million square meters. km, most of the territory is covered by mountains and hills. In the south-west, above the Tibetan Plateau, the well-known mountain systems are located - the Himalayas, the Karakorum, the Tien Shan. From the north, one can observe a completely different situation: the huge intermontane basins are occupied by deserts. It can be said that the natural conditions of China are entirely connected with such a vast territory.
About 30% of the whole territory is made up of plains (in the eastern direction - the Great Chinese Plain), which are most suitable for economic activity. The main reserves of China’s natural resources are concentrated there. In the south of China, plateaus and middle mountain ranges dominate. The climatic features of the eastern part are favorable for agricultural work. The fact is that abundant air flows from the Indian and Pacific oceans come to the eastern part, which bring with them precipitation. In winter, the time here is rather cold and dry. In the western part of the country, farming is possible only in oases; this part is characterized by significant dryness.
China is located in the tropical, subtropical and temperate climatic zones, which allows the country's water, forest and many other resources to be distributed in a special way. The natural resources of China (we will briefly describe them) are quite diverse due to the large territory and length of the country.
Features of China's water resources
First of all, the peculiarity of the geographical position of the country was reflected in the water reserves.They are evenly distributed over the entire area of the country. About 65% of water resources are concentrated in southern China. The south is also rich in artesian basins, which are sources of irrigation. There are two types of lakes in the country: water-erosion and tectonic, most of them are in the Tibetan Plateau.
The economic assessment of the natural conditions and resources of China indicates that in the eastern part there are the largest of the lakes that during the flood period take on the role of the country's reservoir.
Today in the country there are significant environmental problems directly related to water supplies. This is, first of all, a very large discharge of runoff waters that are not treated, with the result that China has a high degree of pollution of lakes and rivers. This is exactly what the country needs today - a large-scale treatment of runoff water.
Forest areas of the country
The economic assessment of China’s natural resources indicates that forests constitute about 20% of the total area. The largest of them are in the north-east of the country. By its diversity of forest species, the country is in the first place.The state has about 25 thousand different species of plants. In the forests you can find a lot of valuable tree species - poppy, tung, grapefruit, camphor, sumy. Diverse vegetation of the country is divided into savannah, desert, forest and steppe zones.
Today, artificial forests are being created in the country, which already cover about 30% of the territory. The area of artificial forests covers approximately 6.5 thousand hectares. Great attention is paid in the country to forest shelter belts that help in combating wind and soil erosion. Here is the most significant project of forest protection: in the northern part of the country were built the whole complex of protective systems. Such unique natural resources help preserve and preserve plantings. This also contributes to the multiple programs that are actively functioning in the country.
Due to this abundance of forests, China is one of the main importers of wood. The country, among other things, is a leader in the production of plywood and a major player in the global paper market.
Minerals of the country
It is impossible to tell briefly about the mineral resources of China, as they are rich and diverse.What resources are there in the country? In fact, the entire periodic table shows the minerals of China. The state is the world leader in the production of non-ferrous metals: tin, zinc and lead.
China (natural conditions and resources are briefly described in the article) possesses a significant part of the world's resources in principle. In the south of the country there is the largest location of tungsten. 80% of the world's reserves of rare earth metals - these numbers can not but hit. The People’s Republic of China has a huge stock of tantalum, which is used to make hard alloys. There are various non-metallic resources: graphite, talc, gypsum, asbestos, bentonite. High characteristics are distinguished by marble and granite, which are also available in the country in considerable quantities.
In terms of oil reserves (3 billion tons), the state is significantly inferior to the leading oil leaders. The main oil fields are located in the north-eastern part of China. In this region there are reserves of metal ore.
Today in China there are about 500 large, 1,100 medium and over 140 thousand small mines and mines, which provided employment to about 10 million people.
Most people in China argue that dependence on the import of resources has always adversely affected national security and the interests of sustainable development. The head of the State Geological Survey of China, M. Sianlaya, expressed the following thoughts on this issue: "The shortage of fossil resources has already become one of the key factors hindering the process of the country's economic and social development." Now the forefront is the task of using foreign markets and stimulating the entry of Chinese enterprises to the overseas mineral market.
Animal world of China
Natural resources are in a certain way connected with animals living in this area. About 10% of all animal species existing on our Earth live in China. Many of them live exclusively in these geographic conditions. These types include:
- giant panda;
- white dolphin;
- Chinese alligator;
- golden monkey;
- Chinese paddle;
- Chinese water deer.
Mostly you can meet elk, deer, brown bear, monkeys and wild boars. The southeastern part of China boasts truly rare species of animals, such as a bamboo bear or a minor panda.Macaques and gibbons feel perfectly in the tropical forests of the country. In Tibet, a frequent visitor snow leopard, and in the south - a smoky leopard. Tigers and bears have survived in several parts of the country.
Energy of the country
In the Middle Kingdom annually the amount of solar energy exceeds 6,000 megahertz joule per square meter. m. Tibet is considered the richest in solar resources.
The country has a large number of wind energy sources, which are located in the north-central and north-western parts of the country, in the south-eastern and coastal regions, on the islands. Dabanchen - the largest wind power plant in China today. According to official estimates, wind energy is estimated at 253 million kW. China deservedly occupies one of the leading positions in the world economy in the production of energy carriers and in the generation of electricity.
The country's energy sector is coal, the share of coal in the fuel balance is 75%, oil and gas (basically artificial) function on a par. Most of the electricity is produced in thermal power plants, mainly coal-fired. Hydropower accounts for a quarter of the electricity generated.
China is a beautiful country with many natural recreational resources for rest and recuperation. So, Hainan Island, located in the South China Sea, is rightly called the pearl of China due to its sandy beaches under the shade of palm trees and amazing tropical landscapes. Approximately 6% are landscape gardening and protected areas of the country. There are more than 400 such reserves with a total area of about 56 million hectares.
The most famous natural site is Dinghushansky mountain reserve in the province of Guangdong and exquisite Xishuansky in Yunnan province, which is inhabited by many large pandas.
Problems with arable land in China
At present, they constitute less than ten percent of all world lands allocated for arable land. The rapid development of industry led to the decline of arable land. It is worth saying that the remaining lands are located in places suffering from water scarcity, soil erosion and salinization. Re-harvesting during the year helps to stabilize the situation a bit. Nevertheless, it is worth talking about this, this issue should be raised to the level of the authorities, because the lack of land can slow down the economic development of the country.
Natural resources and the economy of China create the conditions for the functioning of the food industry. Food industry for such a rich country is an extremely important issue. China is actively engaged in grain processing, pork production is developed. Pork is the basis of the entire meat industry in China.
Only a real cumulative assessment of China’s natural resources, which will be carried out by government agencies, can help identify problems of agriculture, determine the value of resources, their social significance, and find in time solutions that will benefit the conservation of the resource base.