Miraculous cedar bump: photo, description, use
This cedar is a large tree with a spreading crown, resembling an umbrella in shape. In nature, it grows in Lebanon and is the country's national pride. In this regard, the image of the Lebanese cedar is on the flag of the state.
Here we will talk about another cedar, which is actually one of the types of ordinary pine.
What a cedar bump looks like, how it develops, what its properties are - you can find out about it by reading this article.
In Russia, real cedar (the aforementioned Lebanese) is grown as an ornamental plant only in the Crimea and the Caucasus.
Well, the tree, which we out of habit consider to be cedar, is one of several types of pine. In Russia, there are three types of pine (cedar): Siberian, Korean, and elfin cedar (easier - cedar).
Siberian cedar is a strong powerful tree with a conical rounded shape of the crown.Artificially, it is bred in various territories of Russia.
Siberian cedar lives from 300 to 500 years. Only 20-70-year-old trees begin to produce fruit. The cedar cone, which appears periodically in a tree in 5-6 years, is the most valuable thing a cedar has.
Trees can bear fruit for 250 years. In the most productive years in cedar forests, there are many procurers. Well, forest animals are not averse to making stocks for the winter: chipmunks, squirrels, nutcrackers, etc.
Fruits and seeds of Siberian cedar: description
Siberian pine - monoecious plant (dioecious). Both male and female cones are located on the same tree.
Moreover, men are located at the very base of the shoot, and women - at its ends, near the very top bud.
Pollinating plants occurs with the help of wind. Conical buds (gradually tapering) have a length of up to 10 mm. On the axis of the cones of the female there are scales with two seed buds in small sinuses.
Mature large bumps reach sizes up to 15 cm in length and 10 cm in width.
The young cedar cone has a purple hue, and slowly turns brown, acquiring an ovoid, and soon a diamond shape.
Scalpus densely pressed and covered with short, rigid hairs. They fully mature within 15 months.
Each cone contains from 30 to 150 seeds (pine nuts). And in 250 grams contains 1000 seeds of cedar. With an average yield of one tree, you can collect up to 12 kilograms of nuts per season.
Cedar cone: photos, composition and properties
The taste of nuts and their nutritious properties in their own “packages” - cones are best preserved.
The benefits of the use of nuts in food is immeasurable. Only 100 grams of kernels replenish the daily need of the human body in amino acids. Nuts also contain vitamins A, B (1, 2 and 3), D, E and a huge number of trace elements: iron, magnesium, iodine, manganese, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, silicon, copper, boron, titanium, nickel, sodium, aluminum , silver and molybdenum.
Of the organic acids in the composition of the nuts present citric acid. Also in the nuts contain proteins, starch, fiber, some sugar (sucrose).
Nut kernel is a great source of fat.
The emergence of cones, getting seeds
The development of cedar cones occurs in about three years. In the cones themselves, seeds can persist up to 20 years.These seeds can germinate without preparation before sowing. But stratification at a temperature of +3 to + 5 ° C for approximately 14 days significantly accelerates their germination and increases germination (more than 50%). Planting depth should be 1 cm.
Before you get the seeds, the cone should be about 2 or 3 times to soak, then dry, after which it opens.
The cone of the present Himalayan cedar ripens for 1.5 years, and then crumbles like fir. Moreover, the seeds of this species retain their germination only for about 5 months; therefore, it is desirable to sow them after harvesting in the first spring. Presowing treatment is also not required. And their germination - 70%.
Cedar blossoms in spring, and the cones with seeds ripen next year only in August-September (that is, after 17-18 months).
Pine cone in food
Cedar nuts are widely used in the food industry. Cream, butter and milk, having a rather high calorie content, are made from the fruits of cedar.
At Siberian factories, table oil with excellent taste is obtained by cold pressing, and technical oil is produced with hot re-pressing. Remaining after making cake comes to cooking halva.By grinding the nuts (very thinly) with water, milk is obtained. Cream is obtained in the same way, but with less water.
Extensive cedar plantings can be found in the Moscow region and around many other cities. Near the city of Yaroslavl grows a huge grove of 300-year-old cedars.
In natural conditions, Siberian cedar grows only in Siberia, the Urals and Altai, where it is widely used for economic purposes.
Cedar also grows in the territories of Mongolia and in Northern China.
The usefulness of pine cones is immeasurable. It is widely used in medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases.