Migration is ... Labor migration
For a long time, such words as “migrants”, “guest workers”, “labor migrants” have entered into our life and speech. We distribute these labels without thinking about what they mean and whether they are applied correctly. Let us see what labor migration is and how people who move for the purpose of employment are called correctly. And is it worth it to call them migrant workers - everyone decides for himself.
Notion of migration
In general, migration is the relocation of a person either inside the country or to another country. The migrants are called migrants. But there are several types of such movements - this is external and internal migration. Internal is the movement of people from one region to another, or from a city to another, from a village to another. External - relocation to another country or to another continent. People traveling to another country are called emigrants. Those who enter the country are called immigrants.
At the same time, migration of the population is even a temporary departure for rest - tourist migration. Moving from a big city to the countryside is called ruralization.Pilgrimage and nomadic life can also be attributed to the natural migration of the population.
There is no definite concept of labor migration at the moment. Different sources formulate such a move in different ways. However, the general meaning is the same for all sources. Labor migration is a move from regions with a negative economic situation to a more prosperous region or country for the purpose of employment.
Causes of labor migration
The main reason for the emergence of labor migration is a significant pay difference. It often happens that after stopping the enterprises on which the city was originally founded, the population loses their jobs. In such situations, a massive outflow of labor resources begins, in search of a new place, who are moving to other cities with specialized enterprises.
The concept of international migration
International migration is the movement of labor resources (workers) across state borders, occurring with the aim of entering into labor relations in another country. At the same time, it is impossible to name labor migrants who goes on business trips (if the employer is not a foreigner) and thosethose who go to other countries for goods are the so-called shuttles.
International migration is divided into several types:
- Non-refundable. In this case, the employee goes to permanent residence, not planning to return to the old place.
- Temporarily permanent. This name is for migrant workers working in a new country from 1 to 6 years.
- Seasonal. Departure for work, the timing of which is limited by seasonal changes - agriculture, tourist services, fishing, etc. Natural migration in African countries and Asian countries also belongs to this species.
- Pendulum. Crossing the border and returning daily. Such workers are called frontaliermi.
- "Brain drain". International migration of the highest level population, when scientists, unique specialists, athletes, etc., are fleeing in search of a well-paid job to another country
Migration within the country
Labor migration in Russia is based on the same reasons as international. Simply for many reasons, people are unable or unwilling to move to another country, seeking to find better-paid work within their state.As a matter of fact, since we are talking about our country, the main part of migrants seeks to get to Moscow for big earnings. Less often, migration in Russia occurs due to the achievement of a “ceiling” of a career in one’s region, a desire to develop and other similar situations.
Within the country, there are also various types of migration, similar to international ones:
- Irrevocable, involving the complete relocation of the family to a new place of residence and work.
- Seasonal, occurring at the time of performing a certain work that occurs at a certain time of year.
- Temporarily permanent. Such migration within the country occurs less frequently, since having lived and worked in one place for more than 5 years, a person is inclined to stay in this place forever.
In addition to the already mentioned types of migration, there is one more species - illegal migration. This, for the most part, refers to migrants from other countries who have arrived in the country on a tourist visa, but remain there for a long time without registration and registration of labor relations. Most often, illegal immigrants come from countries with unstable economies, lack of jobs.These workers occupy non-prestigious positions, perform draft or one-time work, rejoicing at any income.
However, the inhabitants of our country, working without registration of labor relations, can also be called illegal. Actually, any person, from whose earnings the tax is not deductible, is considered illegal. If such a worker arrives from another city or region, he falls under the concept of an illegal labor migrant.
Lastly, we will explain why this type of migrants is often called a word with a negative subtext - guest worker. And are there any differences between him and the migrant. In general, the word guest worker of German origin. It means “guest-guest”. In Germany, this word was called everyone who came to the country to work. To date, this word is called a person who comes from a poor, undeveloped country. For this reason, such migrants are considered the cheapest and unskilled labor. Most often they have no education. Today, our country ranks first among European countries in the number of guest workers. In the world, we are “only” in second place — the United States is leading here, in which practically all low-paid workers are Mexicans and Latin Americans.
Migration is not just moving people.There is a whole science that studies the possible causes of migration of one type or another. This science is called migrationology. Since the year two thousand, at the suggestion of the Gene. The UN Assembly, a new date has been added to the international holiday calendar - International Migrant Day. Celebrate it on December 18th.