Main types of salads: description and photo
The modern word "salad" combines two concepts - a culinary dish and several types of leafy vegetable culture. Initially, the Latin salato meant a snack served with meat. It was made from chopped lettuce, endive, parsley and onion leaves seasoned with vinegar, olive oil, honey and salt. The main ingredient is lettuce, which is also a garden plant called lettuce. Neutral taste of lettuce allows you to add it to almost all fresh salads.
In this article we will talk about different types of salads - about the garden plants, united by this name, as well as about the dishes of the same name, which are now prepared without lettuce, but are called the same word.
Popular salad plants
Leafy vegetables that do not form large fruits and have a lot of green mass, a pleasant taste and aroma, are called salad vegetables. These are cress, ice-salad, roman lettuce, frillis, mung bean salad, oak salad, chicory salad. Garden plants such as spinach, arugula, cabbage, sorrel, beet, dandelion, quinoa,pak choi and others. There are a lot of them. We have listed only those types of leaf salads, which are sold in Russian stores.
All salad cultures can be used for monosalats, only having seasoned them with sauce. Salads from leafy vegetables and lean meat, fish or seafood are quickly prepared. The latter belong to the Mediterranean cuisine and are very popular in the Apennine peninsula.
Types of Mediterranean salads are very diverse. They are made with mussels, shrimps, oysters, fish and dried meat. We offer to master the most simple and traditional. For it, you need to take several types of leaf lettuce, for example, lettuce, arugula and romain, tear them with your hands, but not very finely. Cut cherry tomatoes in halves. Sweet pepper and onions chopped into half rings. From the capers cut the stem. All vegetables folded in a bowl. Feta cheese crumble with your fingers. In this form, apply to the table, on which the bottles with salt, pepper, oil and vinegar should stand. These seasonings each adds itself to their own taste. The dish can be supplemented with ready-made seafood or meat.
All types of green lettuce can be the basis for an independent snack dishes dishes. To preserve the beneficial properties of the leaves is better not to cut, and tear with your hands or cut with a porcelain knife and immediately pour sauce. Fresh green cucumbers, paprika, white cabbage, tomatoes, radishes should be mixed with the leafy greens. Very tasty salad of lettuce, tomatoes and garlic, seasoned with salt and sour cream. Lettuce can be replaced or combined with any kind of leafy salads.
Green salads do not cook for the future - just before serving.
At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, the dish, called salad, underwent dramatic changes. If earlier only those culinary experiments were called salads, which included lettuce leaves, now new types of salads have appeared, which are various mixtures of cut vegetables or fruits, as well as canned mixed vegetables.
Salads can be both salty and sweet, served cold or hot, act as a separate dish, such as the famous “Herring under a fur coat”, be a side dish for meat, fish or cereal dishes.
The most famous salad, which became the first in a series of new dishes, is a vinaigrette.
Interestingly, in France, the salad with the French name "vinaigrette" is called Russian. The fact is that it was coined at the end of the 18th century in the kitchen of the Russian emperor Alexander I. Rare vinegar vinaigre, rare in our country, was used as a gas station - he gave the name to the dish.
The French language in our Fatherland was then in great fashion. He knew not only the nobles, but many ordinary people. So, a certain cook prepared a mixture of cut vegetables, added boiled potatoes, beets and carrots to it and seasoned with wine vinegar. The royal salad included salted mushrooms, sturgeon, capers and truffles.
I liked the dish, and the salad opened a new era of salads - salads with boiled potatoes, beets and carrots.
In the nation, since capers and truffles were a rare delicacy, sauerkraut or pickles, stewed turnips and dried fish interfered with the salad.
Modern types of salad such as vinaigrette contain green peas and vine onions soaked in vinegar.
There is such an aphorism: "A real woman can make a salad, a hat and a scandal out of nothing." Salad - a dish very convenient.A skillful housewife is able to independently invent a recipe for a new, original salad, if she understands what products are well combined with each other. Ingredients for the salad can be prepared in advance, and cut, mix and fill immediately before serving. Often put in salads canned semi-finished products - fish, squid, corn, peas, beans, cucumbers, olives, mushrooms. They are combined with fresh or boiled components.
Meat products have long taken root in the salad. It is simply boiled lean meat, and sausages, and smoked meats. It is by the presence of the main ingredient that salads are divided into meat, fish, vegetables, mushrooms or fruit. A separate line is salads, canned. Most often they are made from some vegetables, but sometimes combined with mushrooms, legumes, or rice.
The most interesting combinations of ingredients became classic and got their own names. The best of them are presented below.
An important role in salads is given to gas stations.
The meaning of salad dressing or dressing is not only in giving the dish the necessary completeness. Cut vegetables are quickly oxidized. This leads to the destruction of many vitamins.Acid or fat refills stop the destructive effect of oxygen, vitamins are preserved.
Initially, salads were refilled only with vegetable oil and vinegar. Now the stores offer a large selection of a variety of sauces, differing in composition, taste and purpose.
Many people like to fill salads with ordinary sour cream or mayonnaise. These two ingredients can be mixed and get a softer sauce.
Caesar salad appeared in our country relatively recently, but it became so famous and loved so quickly that we thought it necessary to give it a few words. This salad came to us from America. Its name is directly related to the Italian cook, but is in no way associated with the famous commander.
The composition of the classic "Caesar" includes lettuce, white bread croutons, boiled eggs, hard cheese, garlic and olive oil sauce with lemon juice.
Dish for salad need to rub garlic. Tear the salad, chop the eggs, grate the cheese and fold them into the dish. Pour over the sauce. Before serving add croutons. They should not be too long in contact with the sauce - soaking up the liquid,they will become soft and lose their crispness.
An improved version of Caesar includes lean meat, fish, or shrimp. On the basis of "Caesar" created several types of salads. Dishes with them always look very picturesque due to the bright colors of the ingredients. It increases appetite and improves mood.
The best meat salad is, of course, “Olivier”. For many decades he has been overtaking all known types of salads for the New Year. Equal to him can only famous herring under a fur coat, but about her just below.
A French chef named Olivier invented an exquisite salad of game, truffles, crayfish necks and capers. Rare and expensive ingredients were not available to everyone, and the taste of the salad conquered many. Soon the scarce delicacies were supplanted by the available meat fillets, pickled cucumbers, green peas, boiled potatoes and chicken eggs. Only the sauce for dressing remained the same. This is mayonnaise.
On the basis of the classic "Olivier" other types of salads appeared. In them, meat is replaced with mushrooms, crab sticks, shrimps, squids, fish and even sausage. Salad "Duke" - the same "Olivier", only with pickled carrots, "Venice" - with olives. The popular Mimosa salad is also a type of Olivier.The ingredients in it have layers, as in the classic herring under a fur coat.
There are several types of salads with this name. Combines their bright yellow color and the consistent laying of finely chopped or grated products on each other and alternately soaking each mayonnaise. Fish are placed at the bottom of the dish and covered with egg whites. Next comes boiled carrots, followed by pickled onions, then potatoes. The top of the salad is covered with a thick layer of egg yolks, grated cheese of bright yellow color or canned corn. It is very lively appearance of the salad, the dish looks elegant and picturesque.
"Herring under a fur coat"
Began puff salads with well-known herring under a fur coat. What types of salads are used to cook for the New Year's Eve? Certainly, those who will enjoy an aesthetic appetizing appearance, but which quickly give a feeling of saturation without gravity, because the New Year's Eve is completely devoted to fun, walking on the street near the main Christmas tree of the city and meetings with friends. Such an active pastime is accompanied by abundant food, and who wants to gain so much extra weight in a few hours of the holiday,so that all the rest of the weekend longingly think about the upcoming diet and exhausting exercises in the gym? "Herring under a fur coat" and looks beautiful, and very tasty, and not too high in calories.
For the classic "fur coat" need boiled beets, potatoes and carrots, fresh apples and onions, herring and mayonnaise. Peel and grate beets, potatoes and carrots. Apples too, peel and grate. Chop the onion and pour boiling water for a couple of minutes, so that the bitterness is gone. Free the herring from entrails, skin and bones. Chop fillets very finely.
On a narrow and long dish put a layer of potatoes and pour mayonnaise. On it - herring. On the herring - onions, then carrots, and on it - apples. Each layer is watered with mayonnaise. All products should be laid out smoothly to get a beautiful slide. This hill should be closed with grated beets, smeared with mayonnaise. Salad tastes best in a few hours when the juice appears and mixes with the sauce.
Fruit and berry
Fruit salads are made from both fresh and canned fruit. They are seasoned with sour cream, yogurt, condensed milk, honey or lemon juice with sugar.
The most delicious types of fruit salads contain honey and are decorated with ice cream. They are made cold and served as a dessert.
For fruit salads take any fruit that has a strong texture. They are peeled from the skin and seeds, cut into cubes, placed in a bowl, poured sweet sauce and decorated with grated chocolate, fruit pieces and nuts.
Here are three types of salad. Photos show how to make them better.
- Wild berry salad. For him, you need to take raspberries, ripe gooseberries, red, black and white currants and honey. Cut the gooseberry in halves and clean the seeds. Currant berries carefully separated from the twigs. Fold clean berries into transparent vases in layers. Pour over honey mixed with minced mint.
- Fresh fruit salad. Peel apples and pears and tangerines from the peel and seeds. Cut into cubes. Mint leaves cut and knead in a mortar before browning. Mix with fruit syrup and pour fruit over this sauce.
- Salad of canned fruit. Pineapples and peaches cut into cubes, folded into a bowl. Mint leaves boil in syrup from under pineapples or peaches. Cool, strain and pour into the bowl.Refrigerate until cool. Decorate with ice cream or whipped cream, squeezing them through the cornet with curly nozzle.
Dessert and snack bars, very tasty and incredibly healthy salads can be made from carrots. It is available at any time of the year and in any locality, and the use of fresh carrots for vision and general health is indisputable.
Fresh carrots are peeled, ground on a grater and seasoned with salt, sugar, vegetable oil, sour cream, honey or vinegar, depending on what kind of salad you need - dessert or snack. When the carrot makes juice and becomes a little softer, the salad is ready and you can eat it.
Here are a few types of salads. The recipes of these mixes are perfect for meat dishes:
- The first is fresh grated carrots and radish with salt, apple cider vinegar and sunflower oil.
- The second - grated carrots, horseradish, salt and sour cream. Very simple and very tasty.
And for the sweet tooth the following types of salad recipes with honey:
- First - sprinkle fresh grated apples with vinegar so as not to darken, and combine with carrots.
- The second is to mix prepared carrots with roasted ground nuts and a banana.
Instead of carrots, you can use turnips or Jerusalem artichoke. Also tasty and healthy.
Canning is very convenient if you have your own greenhouse, and by the end of the summer many Bulgarian peppers and tomatoes ripen. These vegetables most often complement almost all types of salads for the winter. They are used both as a whole and cut. Pour with tomato juice, vinegar marinade or vegetable oil. Most of the recipes have come to us from the Balkan countries, where the harvests of bell peppers, eggplants and tomatoes are so high that it is simply criminal to not harvest tasty vegetables. It is not by chance that many Balkan types of salads and names have the appropriate ones: gyuvech, paprikash, lecho.
This salad is made as a seasoning for meat or fish semi-finished products. Sometimes meat or fish is boiled, then separated from the bones, combined with güvech and stewed for a while on a small fire. It turns out the original mix of tastes. Depending on the fat content of meat, it is eaten cold or hot.
Gyuvecha (except for the marinade) includes 11 ingredients - eggplants, zucchini, tomatoes, onions, peas, green beans, carrots, okra, green cherry plums, potatoes and garlic.Everything is cut pretty large and placed in a large pot. Poured marinade of white wine, salt and spices (black pepper, allspice, cloves, cinnamon, marjoram, basil, dill and parsley). Boiled down to reduce the liquid in half and spreads in sterile jars. Banks put upside down, wrapped, left to cool completely, then transferred to a cold basement.
The name of the salad paprikash says what kind of vegetable dominates it. This is a sweet Bulgarian pepper, paprika. Like Gyuvech, paprikash canned for the winter, then used as a salad, most often for meat. The composition of paprikash includes Bulgarian pepper, onions, tomatoes, salt and spicy herbs. Peppers are cleaned from seeds, cut into rings. Shred the onion rings. Tomatoes rubbed through a sieve and mixed with seasonings. Pour the resulting tomato pepper and onion, put on the stove and boil until thick. Then poured into banks, wrapped until cooled and carried to a cold place.
Lecho is similar to paprikash, but it is prepared with vinegar marinade. Peppers need to be freed from the seeds and cut into strips. Heat the vegetable oil in a skillet and quickly fry the pepper in it.Incise the tomatoes, scalded with boiling water and peel. Skip through a meat grinder. Season tomato paste with salt, sugar and pepper. Put on the fire and simmer for 10 minutes. Put the pepper in it and pour in the oil. After 5 minutes add vinegar and garlic. Then 5 minutes and pour into clean cans. Cork, turn and leave for a day. Cooled banks transfer to a dark cool room. For lecho you need to take 2 kg of tomatoes and peppers, half a glass of oil and vinegar. Salt, sugar and pepper - to taste. Garlic - at the rate of 1 clove per jar, that is, 5-7 pieces.
White cabbage salads are very popular in our country. This vegetable is used both in fresh form and in fermented. Fresh cabbage is pretty tough. To make the salad tender and juicy, the cabbage is chopped and lightly sprinkled with salt and ground between the palms. She gives juice and it turns out very tasty. To the cabbage add a variety of vegetables - grated carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers and different types of leafy salads. Season with vegetable oil and apple cider vinegar.
Sauerkraut is a ready-made salad, in which you only need to crumble the onions and pour in a little vegetable oil.When fermented in cabbage, most vitamins are preserved. Cabbage salads are also suitable for dietary nutrition, as they contain a substance that breaks down fat and promotes weight loss.