Loam - what is it? Soil characteristics
Loam is with a higher percentage of clay. Depending on the composition, it is subdivided into several varieties. The fertility of such soils is quite high. But there are some features of the construction of loam on the ground. Its qualities can affect the strength of the foundation of the future home. And to avoid negative consequences, you must first carry out a thorough analysis of the land.
There are many types of soil. These include clean sand or clay, the processing of which, as a rule, causes many difficulties for gardeners. Sandy rock sandy loam also needs to be improved: it is carefully fertilized before landing. But it is actively used in construction, especially in the construction of pavement.
Rocky soils are ideal for engineering work. However, they are quite rare. As for loam, it is a non-rock variety of soil.For high clay content, it is also called bound.Also well suited for the construction of monumental buildings and small buildings. However, the foundation of these buildings may be subject to destruction due to increased moisture content. Therefore, it is necessary to study exactly the composition of the loam and determine the further procedure for construction.
Types and characteristics of loam
A large number of territories of the Russian Federation is located precisely on loamy soil. Loam is of three types. They are distinguished depending on the ratio present in the composition of sand and clay. Lightweight - more crumbly and less dense, rolls off with difficulty. Its plasticity coefficient is no higher than twelve. There is less sand in heavy loam, large lumps of clay are present.There is also an intermediate option between the two. In this case, the soil turns roll into a small cord. But because of the low moisture content, it will soon fall apart.
According to a different classification, loam is emitted dry and wet. In silt, the percentage of sand particles does not reach forty. This is what distinguishes it from sandy. The density of loam depends on the total humidity and varies from 1.8 to 2.1 tons per cubic meter.
There are several ways to determine the composition of the soil.The simplest is visual inspection and the taking of a small amount of earth in his hands. The degree of friability is determined, attempts are made to roll the soil into a ball or cord. Attention is paid to viscosity, stickiness, the presence in the mixture of small particles, dust. The increased moisture content and clay will lead to the fact that during frosts the state of the soil will change. And since winters on the territory of Central Europe can be cold and long, you need to try to build the foundation of the building, taking into account possible threats and according to all the rules of construction.
Another good way to know the texture of loam is to put a small amount of it in a container with water. It is desirable that the vessel was transparent. The fluid is thoroughly stirred. After some time (no earlier than 15 minutes), one can observe the formed sediment. Sand particles will remain at the bottom of the tank, and clay will float to the surface. The approximate amount of substances per eye determines the total composition of the soil.
If you need accurate data, you can use the services of special chemical laboratories.
It is advisable to verify the land in the spring season. It is then that the groundwater level gets higher and closer to the surface. In some cases, the territory is flooded, which indicates unfavorable terrain. Perhaps there is a marsh or a large body of water nearby, which means that the water level will rise annually and have a destructive effect on the foundation.
On the building plot choose the most even and dry place. From different sides should be drilled several wells. This will help in more detail to study the soil, its uniformity and humidity. After the research, they proceed to planning the development. Ways of construction depend on the financial capabilities of the owners, their wishes and the state of the land.
Having defined the project of the building, proceed to laying the foundation. In some cases, before building the foundation on loam, the soil under it is covered with a small layer of wet sand. This will protect the concrete slabs from severe deformation during frosts. The foundation is laid to a great depth.To do this, you need to know what is the height of soil freezing in winter in a given area.If the plate will be located deeper, it will not be displaced. It is also important to avoid groundwater under the building.
When all materials are ready for construction, the site is marked and prepared. The vegetation layer is removed, the area is carefully leveled. The next stage is the installation of pillars at some distance from the future house. Dimensional boards are attached to them. All dimensions must be specified clearly and strictly in accordance with the project. In case of high humidity it is necessary to do drainage. The method consists in installing trenches (pipes) near the basement, where excess water will flow.
There is another option, how to avoid the consequences of building on loamy soil. This is the so-called "floating foundation". It consists of the most durable solid plate. Another type of construction is also used - the lattice. A thick layer of sand or rubble is laid under them. As a result, after the frosts, the ground begins to rise, and with it the base of the building rises. This deformation is imperceptible, and strong, thick concrete slabs do not break or crack.The only drawback of this method is that it will take quite a lot of time and patience to build.
In order not to fear in the future for your home, you can use the technology TISE. Her love for low cost and the ability to lay the foundation on absolutely any soil. Wells break through to a greater depth, and they set up supports. It is important to reinforce the system. Then the design will be the most durable and able to withstand any structure. This option is ideal for terrain with groundwater at the surface.
Treatment and improvement of soil composition
Loam is not only the ground on which to build a house, but also used for planting. In this case, you can use organic fertilizer or add sand. If the clay content is elevated, then the earth should not be mixed in: it will only add moisture and tackiness. It is necessary to try to loosen the landing sites more often. Gardeners even make some protective constructions against “trampling” the soil. It can be wooden boards, broken bricks, remains of cut plants.
The beds should be raised by a dozen centimeters, since after rains deep puddles can form that do not dry out for a long time. Sand and manure are also added to avoid problems. Excess sand in the garden beds is also not recommended: it will damage the vegetation.
To avoid mistakes during the construction will help a thorough study of the soil and the choice of the type of foundation. The most common tape, but its use on loamy soils should be carried out with caution. It is important to consider the level to which the earth may freeze. The foundation should be located a few dozen centimeters below. Otherwise, in a few years, after the seasons change, the concrete slabs will crack. Such a house will be unfit and even dangerous for housing. Often the repair of such a structure is impossible.