Leonid Kravchuk - the first president of independent Ukraine: biography, family
If we talk about a person like Leonid Kravchuk, the first thing that comes to mind is that this is the first person who was able to make Ukraine a truly happy and rich country. But the people who lived in her at that time remember well how he did it. To tell the truth, not a single president of Ukraine had such a chance. Simply, the majority of people living in Ukraine now either were born later, or were small enough to remember this.
Who is Leonid Kravchuk, what is his life’s journey and what has he done for the country? At present, Kravchuk Leonid Makarovich, who is already 83 years old, talks a lot about modern ways of development of Ukraine, but many people wonder whether he has this right and what he did for the country during his presidency. Can he be considered a good president? Many answers to these questions can be obtained from his biography.As she explains many of the actions and decisions that Leonid Kravchuk made.
Soviet period of life and political career
The future first president of an independent Ukraine was born in the middle of the winter of 1934 in Volyn, which at that time was part of Poland. If we talk about his parents, they were peasants. Moreover, his father served in the Polish cavalry, and his mother worked for Polish immigrants. In 1939, this territory was annexed to the Soviet Union. But at that time, the future president was only five years old. Then the years of the Second World War, which Leonid Kravchuk survived, like all the children of the war of that time. I felt for myself what it means to lose my father, who died in 1944 in Belarus.
After the war, he graduated from school and enters the university. In her main profession she works for a short time - only two years, after which she switches to political work. He begins his political career in the Chernivtsi regional party committee, where he has been working in various positions for seven years. Then, after studying in Kiev, he began his work in the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, where he worked until the collapse of the Soviet Union.It is in the KPU Central Committee that he occupies not only various leadership positions, but by the 1990s he is a member of the KPU politburo and second secretary of the KPU Central Committee on ideology. In 1991, after the August coup attempt, Leonid Kravchuk left the ranks of the CPSU and became non-partisan.
The collapse of the Soviet Union and the formation of Ukraine
It was at this time that he became one of the main initiators of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Then Kravchuk Leonid Makarovich was the chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. And at this time, the Verkhovna Rada accepts the act of independence of the country, and Ukraine becomes an independent state. Regarding that period, there are a lot of various versions of what is happening now. Many politicians are trying to raise their image in world politics, exposing themselves to be the "undertakers" of the Soviet Union. Leonid Kravchuk has been occupying a similar position for a long time, whose biography has been described in some detail by many publicists. But for all these publications it is clearly seen that in those days he could somehow understand with some sixth sense where the wind was blowing and fill his sails with it.The next natural step was to run for president.
Achievements of his rule and the election of the first president of Ukraine
At the first presidential election, Leonid Kravchuk is being promoted as non-partisan. It was the sixth sense, which was written above, that helped him to take this step, and, having acquired many fans, he wins the election in the first round. Separated from the CPSU and acquiring the title of father of independence, he committed an act that helped him arrange the post of the first president of Ukraine.
And a week later, President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk signed the Belovezhskaya Agreement on the termination of the existence of the USSR. Kravchuk’s presidency did not last long. Within three years, he will lose the early presidential election to his namesake Kuchma. Moreover, these three years were filled with a struggle against any mention of the USSR.
Kravchuk, unlike Kuchma, was not a business executive, he was a professional ideological politician who did not even know how the state operated. Therefore, quickly brought the country to the pen. As a result, disgruntled Ukrainians demanded re-election, which Kravchuk lost.But six months before that, he makes a decision on the withdrawal of nuclear weapons from Ukraine, signing a trilateral agreement between Ukraine, Russia and the United States. Why such an agreement was signed is still a mystery, since Ukraine did not receive anything in exchange for the withdrawal of nuclear weapons to Russia, which ended in 1996. The president of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk did not receive any financial, military guarantees.
Re-election and post-presidential activities
After the summer of 1994, Leonid Kravchuk begins a new life, like the former president of Ukraine. Having won the first round of elections, but not gaining the necessary (more than 50%) majority, the first president of independent Ukraine goes to the second round of presidential elections, which Leonid Kuchma loses. After the beginning of this stage of his life, he continues to participate in the political life of the country as a deputy of the Verkhovna Rada of several convocations. Included in the leadership of SDPU (o). In the future, due to old age, he is more engaged in various hobbies, and also quite often appears on television screens in various political shows, where he most often criticizes the existing power at this time.
Kravchuk's relationship with other presidents of Ukraine
If we talk about the attitude of Leonid Kravchuk with other presidents, they have never been particularly tense. Since he always respectful of the government. Although he constantly criticized them, but, as many experts confidently assert, this is more to raise their own image and not to be forgotten in society. With the development of any difficult situations in Ukrainian society, he tried to act as a reconciling party. This was especially evident until 2014, when there was a split in the east and west of Ukraine. But, probably, because of his background, he was always more inclined towards pro-Western circles.
Leonid Kravchuk's nationality
As mentioned above, although Leonid Kravchuk was born (whose nationality has never been questioned) on the Polish territory at that time, he is mentioned in all documents as Ukrainian. Life on Polish territory was not long enough to leave an indelible mark on his life. Nevertheless, his dislike for Russia has been preserved since that time. But, as many political observers note, most likely, he successfully hid her for many years of his life.And as soon as the opportunity to show it and it became profitable, this dislike blossomed.
Many biographers note that Leonid Makarovich, whose education was quite diverse, achieved a lot thanks to his training as a specialist and political worker. He received his first education at Kiev University with a degree in economics and even taught it at a technical school. A little later, he enrolled in a graduate school of the Academy of Social Sciences under the CPSU Central Committee and defended his thesis. In the future, his specialization becomes political economics, although he no longer teaches, but focuses on political activities.
Family and Children
The first president of an independent Ukraine has a fairly large and friendly family. His wife Antonina Mikhailovna is also an economist by education, she studied with her future husband at the same university and at the same faculty. Where I met him. Kravchuk’s wife, Leonid Makarovich, is also a candidate of economic sciences and has taught almost all her working life in her native university.The wedding was played before the future young specialists graduated from the university in 1957. Leonid Makarovich, whose family consisted of three people, often changed his place of residence, since Leonid Kravchuk moved a lot from place to place. Son Alexander followed in the footsteps of his mother and works at Kiev University. Leonid Kravchuk also has grandchildren and great-grandchildren, but none of them went into politics in the footsteps of his father and grandfather.
Events of 2014 in Ukraine and Leonid Kravchuk
Leonid Kravchuk did not directly participate in the events of the so-called “Euromaidan”, which began in Ukraine in late 2013 and ended in early 2014. During this period, he took a neutral position and tried to help the existing government to solve the political crisis. He held fairly moderate positions and did not conflict with the then existing power of Viktor Yanukovych, on the one hand, but did not reject the views of the more radical opposition present at the time on the Independence. He still managed to maintain this position, although he has repeatedly expressed support for military action in the Donbas and in the Luhansk region.
The future of Ukraine in terms of the first president
Currently, the political elite of Ukraine constantly makes certain statements about the future of the country. The first president of independent Ukraine does not stand aside either. There are quite a lot of questions at the moment that are pending. This is uncertainty about the situation in the Donbas. And also the status of Crimea is not clear. With regard to the territorial integrity of Ukraine, its first president takes a rather tough position. This applies primarily to the Crimea, which, according to participants in those events, he personally bargained with Boris Yeltsin. The support of Kravchuk at that moment was more important for the President of the Russian Federation than the Crimea itself. Also, a rather tough question has been raised about the Donbas, although Kravchuk admits the possibility of negotiating with leaders of the unrecognized republics, but only in order to reduce combat losses. He can talk about the federalization of Donbass, but at the same time does not allow the slightest thought about the separation of this territory from Ukraine. Although at present in Ukraine there are a lot of conflicts that threaten to violate the territorial integrity of the country.For example, you can take the Transcarpathian region.
Kravchuk's attitude to the problem of the USA - Russia
Recently, the official authorities of Ukraine are taking an openly anti-Russian position. At the same time, Leonid Kravchuk, being an economist by profession, is well aware that at the moment Ukraine will not survive without Russia. On the other hand, the United States is the other polar edge of relations. And with the arrival of the new president in relations with this country there are more questions than answers. Therefore, Leonid Makarovich Kravchuk takes a waiting position, trying to decide which side of the scale will be heavier.