Kurdistan Workers Party: number, activity
The Kurdistan Workers Party is a political movement founded by the Kurds. In fact, this is a rebel organization that is fighting to gain Kurds in Turkey. Also, its goal is to create a Kurdish autonomy in Turkey. The organization operates not only by peaceful means. In its composition there is a military wing - the People’s Defense Forces.
The Kurdistan Workers Party at various times had different names. It was called the Democratic People’s Union, as well as the Congress of Freedom and Democracy of Kurdistan. The movement returned its current name in 2005. In general, the party appeared in 1978. Initially, she positioned herself as a left-wing socialist movement. In 1980, there was a military coup in Turkey, after which most of the leaders of the movement were arrested. Only a few of the PKK members managed to escape. True, among them was the leader of the movement, Abdulla Ocalanu.
By the mid-1980s, the Kurdistan Workers' Party had an already large and extensive partisan army, which numbered several thousand people. There were also political structures united in the Front for National Liberation of Kurdistan.
In 1999, the army was transformed into the people's self-defense forces that still exist. They include professional partisans who are based in the high-altitude, hard-to-reach parts of Kurdistan. The activities of the Kurdistan Workers' Party are aimed at controlling the Kurdish society, living both directly in Turkey and in European countries. The PKK has a very large budget. The party uses it through controlled large businessmen. The main objectives are Turkish law enforcement agencies.
Fight against the PKK
The Kurdistan Workers Party is one of the main opponents of the Turkish government today. Military force is used against them. It is believed that Turkish intelligence officers are behind the organization of an alternative PKK-grouping, which is called "Kurdish Hezbollah". Its members regularly commit abductions and murders of PKK activists.Kurdistan Workers Party is trying to resist them.
Until 1998, the Kurds were supported by the Syrians. However, then they lost this assistance, and the leader of the PKK had to seek refuge in another country. In the same 1998, the question of granting political asylum to Ocalan was seriously considered in Russia. With this initiative, the deputies of the State Duma even addressed the president. However, Yeltsin left the appeal of parliamentarians without consideration. Only a year later, Ocalan finally obtained political asylum in Italy, but by that time he was already in a Turkish prison, awaiting the death penalty. In 1999, the Kurdistan Workers Party, whose photo of the leader had by then appeared in the world press more often, announced a truce. For 30 years of confrontation with Turkey, the Kurds declared a truce five times unilaterally.
The activities of the Kurdistan Workers' Party of Turkey were very disturbing, it slowed down the planned development of the country. Therefore, the Turkish authorities repeatedly secretly requested to conclude a truce. In 1993, the leader of the PKK, Jalah Talabani, officially announced the cease-fire at a press conference unilaterally.Odzhalan and Turkish leader Turgut Ozal were able to agree among themselves. Initially, a truce was announced until April 15. After that, peacetime was extended for another month. True, two days later, Ozal died of a heart attack.
Operations against the Kurdish partisans immediately resumed. They were especially massive in the eastern and south-eastern regions. The PKK was forced to announce the termination of the truce. According to other sources, the activists of the Kurdish party themselves broke the truce by seizing a bus with Turkish recruits. Three dozen unarmed soldiers were killed on the spot.
For the second time, the Kurdistan Workers Party, which numbers several thousand militants, announced a truce in December 1995. This was a reaction to the appeal of Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Chiller to Ajalan. And this time, the regime without fire lasted only a month. In the middle of January 1996, a bus with civilians was fired in the south-east of Turkey. In total there were 11 people in it. The Turkish authorities blamed the PKK for shooting, the Kurds blamed the Turkish military for everything. In May of the same year, an unsuccessful attempt was made on one of the leaders of the Turkish Kurds, Ocalan. This put the final cross on the peace talks.
The following attempts to find a common language between the Kurds and the Turkish authorities were made in 1998. The new prime minister of the republic, Necmettin Erbakan, himself called for a truce. This time the parties laid down their arms for half a year. Calm remained even after the ultimatum about the introduction of Turkish troops in Syria, because of which Ocalan left the country. The end of the truce put the arrest of the Kurdish leader in mid-February 1999.
In the summer of 1999, the Kurdistan Workers Party officially announced that it was withdrawing its troops from Turkish territory. The partisans moved to Iraq. On September 1, the next truce was established, the fourth one. It was the longest in the history of the confrontation of the Turks and Kurds. A calm and peaceful atmosphere persisted for almost five years.
True, the Turkish leadership eventually began to openly ignore the Kurdish problem. For this reason, in the summer of 2004, Kurdish leaders decided to resume hostilities.
In September 2006, a truce was announced for the fifth time. This decision was the reaction of the warring parties to the numerous requests of representatives of the Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals.Also for the cease-fire were the United States and the leaders of the countries of the European Union. At the tenth congress of the Kurdistan Workers' Party, the concepts of passive and active self-defense were officially approved. This meant conducting exclusively forced attacks in the event of a direct attack by the aggressor. In all other cases, it was recommended to comply with the terms of the truce.
After five truces, the time has come to declare a moratorium on the conduct of hostilities. This is the conclusion reached by the leaders of the Kurdistan Workers' Party in 2009. For the first time, the moratorium was introduced on June 1, then extended several times until it was extended indefinitely.
Recognition of an extremist organization
The first country to recognize the Kurdistan Workers' Party as an extremist organization was Germany. This happened in 1993, at the same time the activity of the party was banned on the territory of this country. This decision was made by the German Ministry of the Interior. In 1997, the PKK was recognized as a terrorist organization in the United States, and four years later in the United Kingdom, and a little later in Canada and Australia.According to the security services of various countries, the activities of the Kurdish party are also banned in Moldova, the Netherlands, France, Austria, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Iraq, New Zealand, the Philippines and, of course, Turkey.
In 2002, the European Union included the PKK in the list of terrorist organizations. This automatically meant a ban on its activities in all countries of the European Union. And regardless of how the national legislation applies to the movement.
After 6 years, the European Court made a very unexpected decision, recognizing the inclusion of the PKK in the list of terrorist organizations illegal. Surprisingly, the reason for this was formal. Procedural errors were made during the consideration of the case. For example, representatives of the Kurdish party were not given the opportunity to speak in their defense. At the same time, the judges immediately clarified that their decision does not call for excluding the KPR from the list of terrorist organizations. This court decision was purely formal. By the time of publication, all errors and inaccuracies were already eliminated.
Thus, the Kurdistan Workers ’Party has remained on the ban list.She is listed on this list to this day. This viewpoint is shared by many local journalists. Mikhail Nikolaevsky writes against the Workers Party of Kurdistan. He believes that Americans are flirting with her, and the Yezidi Kurds are directly accused of participating in battles as part of the Islamic State banned in Russia.
Working party today
The activity of the Kurdistan Workers Party continues today. March 2017 was marked for her by the ambiguous attitude of the international community. According to a number of experts, today hundreds of special agents of the Turkish National Intelligence Service serve in the ranks of the KPR.
Obviously, the Kurdish politician Kemal Burkai, who has lived in exile for many years, is now at the forefront. He directly accuses the PKK leadership of aggravating relations with Turkey in solving the Kurdish issue. He insists that in the 70s Kurdish society tried to solve problems in a democratic way, and when the PKK switched to active hostilities, all hopes for a peaceful settlement of the issue collapsed. Therefore, at the moment the Kurdish society is at a loss, they do not know what to expect from the Kurdistan Workers' Party.