Kazan is the third capital of Russia
Just a few years ago, the city of Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, officially received the right to be called the third capital of Russia. Did the city deserve such a high rank? This is judged by numerous tourists who rush through the ancient city, which was once the center of the Kazan Khanate. Its centuries-old history and significance is not disputed. Kazan initially stood at the crossroads of trade routes of the East and the West and was influenced by two cultures at once. It has kept its many faces to this day.
The city, which has the “Third Capital of Russia” brand, is located on the left bank of the Volga, at the confluence of the Kazanka River. The settlement separates from Moscow 820 km. Due to such a favorable geographical position, Kazan from ancient times was an important trading center, a kind of bridge between the East and the West.
From north to south the city stretches for 29 km, the length from west to east is 31 km.Its central, western, and southeastern parts overlook the Volga, whose total length is about 15 km. There is only one bridge across the river. The terrain can be described as flat and hilly, the territory of the city is characterized by a large area of water surfaces.
Kazan is influenced by a temperate continental climate. In the third capital of Russia there are practically no severe frosts in winter and the merciless summer heat. Mostly the south and west wind blows. The level of snow cover in the city and the surrounding area is moderate. Average summer temperature - + 17-20 ° С, winter -9-12 ° С
Origin of city name
The question of the origin of the name of one of the oldest cities in Russia remains controversial for many years. At the moment there are more than twenty versions, and each of them has certain grounds and evidence. We will tell only about the most popular and common.
The most logical and simple version of the origin of the name is folk etymology. Translated from the Tatar language "Kazan" means "boiler". This version is based on numerous legends about how the shaman recommended the Bulgars to build a city there,where, without a fire, a cauldron buried in the ground, filled with water, will boil. And such a place was found - on the shore of Lake Kaban.
A more plausible version of why the capital of the region and the third capital of Russia were so named is connected with attempts to interpret the word "Kazan" in terms of terrain features and topography. It is believed that the word dates back to the ancient Turkic language, in which cauldron (kazgan) was treated as a hollow, washed out from two sides by a river, the upper point of a steep bank.
Ethnographer and archaeologist Yusupov G. V. suggested that, perhaps, the name of the city comes from the name of the tribe who moved to the Middle Volga.
Age of the city
According to the official version, Kazan was founded more than 1,000 years ago. This statement is based on archaeological finds discovered during excavations on the territory of the old Kazan Kremlin. This coinage is supposedly 929-930, remnants of stone and wooden fortress fence, household utensils and crafts, and other, more controversial artifacts.
The question of the year when the third capital of Russia was founded became a political connotation since the 1970s.Then the leadership of Kazan set itself the task of bringing the city closer to Moscow by age. However, under the influence of a number of scientific arguments of the specialist of the USSR Academy of Sciences Smirnova A., the attempt failed. The 800th anniversary of the city in 1977 was canceled. The issue of age was again raised in the mid-1990s. And this time, the city was officially able to celebrate its millennium in 2005. Yet, part of the national archaeological community did not agree with this opinion, arguing that New Kazan was founded not earlier than the 14th century, following the Old One, laid higher down the Kazanka River in 13th century This is explained by the fact that there is no continuous cultural layer up to the 14th century in the place of the Kazan Kremlin, and this criterion for determining age is more significant than objects found separately.
The so-called third capital of Russia, Kazan, was originally built as a frontier fortress in the north of the Volga Bulgaria state. In the 13-14 century. the city on the wave of growth becomes the political and commercial center of the Golden Horde. The development was facilitated by a favorable geographical position at the crossroads of major trade routes of the East and West.
In 1438, the Bulgarian fortress was conquered by the Golden Horde Khan Ulu-Muhamedd, who became the founder of the dynasty of the Kazan Khans. The city became the capital of the Kazan Khanate, formed after the collapse of the Golden Horde. During this period, handicraft was actively developing: leather, pottery, armory. Kazan traded with the Crimea and Moscow, Turkey. In the Russian chronicles the city begins to appear from the 14th and 15th centuries.
As a result of a series of military conflicts between the Kazan Khanate and the Moscow principality, Kazan was captured by the troops of Ivan IV the Terrible. Subsequently, an impressive part of the city was destroyed, and the Tatars were resettled on the marshy shores of Fr. Boar. Thus, the Old Tatar settlement was founded, which is now one of the main attractions of the third capital of Russia. After the capture of Kazan, about eight thousand Russian slaves were freed.
Kazan as part of Russia
In 1552, immediately after the conquest of the city and its incorporation into Russia, at the behest of I. Grozny, the construction of the white stone Kremlin began (it can be seen in the photo above). Merchants and artisans were resettled in the town, sometimes with whole settlements from the most diverse Russian cities, as well as those disagreeable to the king of the boyars.
In the 17th century the city is booming. At this time, industrial settlements were laid and the first manufactories were built. Since the 60s of the 18th century the building of the city becomes orderly. There are wooden pavements, bridges. A new round of development was associated with a visit to the city of Empress Catherine the Great in 1767. She personally removed the restrictions that existed on the construction of Tatar public buildings and stone mosques. Grateful Kazan called her "queen grandmother."
Up until the beginning of the 20th century, which brought great changes, numerous educational institutions opened in the city. The capital of Kazan province has become a cultural and educational center of the entire Volga region.
History of the city: 20th century
The twentieth century brought great upheavals throughout the country, including the modern third capital of Russia. What city, you ask, did not get into this cruel and bloody whirlwind? Perhaps all, even the most distant. However, Kazan was destined to become one of the centers of the revolutionary movement. In 1918 the city was overtaken by the Civil War, in the course of fierce fighting, the troops of the Czechoslovak Corps took it on August 6, and on September 6 it was again beaten off by the Red Army.
Tatar ASSR was formed in 1920, and Kazan became its capital. In the 1930s, the active industrialization of the city began. During the Great Patriotic War many large factories and the USSR Academy of Sciences were evacuated to Kazan. After the war, the development of the city continued, and as a result, it became one of the largest industrial, cultural and scientific centers in the country.
Kazan was declared the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan in 1990. The market epoch of the late XX and early XXI centuries allowed the city to become one of the largest and most important political, cultural, sports and tourist interregional centers in the country. In 2008, the third capital appeared at the official level in Russia. Read more about how the brand was assigned to Kazan.
In 2005, solemn events were held on the occasion of the thousandth anniversary of the city. To it were built the Kul-Sharif Mosque (pictured below), the underground, the new hippodrome, the Millennium Bridge, Tatneft Arena, etc.
Kazan annually receives about a million tourists and this makes it one of the most important centers of tourism. UNESCO Kazan Kremlin included in the World Heritage List.The city is a member of several international organizations, has numerous trade relations, it hosts international festivals and competitions. In 2013, Kazan hosted the World Summer Universiade, in 2015 - the World Aquatics Championship. In addition, the city received the right to participate in the World Cup in 2018.
The third capital of Russia - what kind of city?
In the Russian regional and national speech culture, it is customary to understand the city as the third capital, which, with the alternative development of history, could well become or claim, or be close to becoming the capital.
First of all, those are the settlements that temporarily made or wanted to make the capitals of the forces that lost in the uprisings and the civil war. In addition, these are cities that are or were claimants for the role of the main ones in the country if they decide to transfer the capital for appropriate reasons. The second capital of Russia is St. Petersburg, and the third is Kazan.
Why Kazan is the third capital of Russia?
Kazan began to position itself as the third capital back in 2007.at the sites of the international exhibitions ITB in Berlin and MIPIM in Cannes by posting information on their stands. In Nizhny Novgorod found this act illegal. The high status, in their opinion, should belong to the generally recognized capital of the Volga region. Thus, before registering with Rospatent, there was a rather heated struggle between Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod. By the way, among other applicants were such cities as Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Volgograd, Ufa, etc.
Nizhny Novgorod appealed to history, since in the second half of the 14th century. He was the capital of the principality of Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal. Tatarstan supported its claim to an honorary title with the words of V. Putin, who, in celebration of the city’s millennium, called it the “third capital”. According to some reports, Kazan won only because it submitted all the necessary documentation to Rospatent a couple of days earlier than its competitors. As a result, in 2008, the brands “Third Capital of Russia”, “Third City”, “Third City of Russia”, Russia`s third capital, “Third Capital” were assigned to it. Nizhny Novgorod patented the name "Capital of the Volga region".
Population: size and ethnic composition
According to the data as of 01/01/2016, Kazan is one of the largest Russian cities in terms of population, it ranks sixth. The number of people living in the city exceeded 1,216,965 people. Note that in 1557 the number of citizens did not exceed 7 thousand.
Kazan is one of the most multicultural cities in Russia, with representatives of more than 115 nationalities living in it. The largest of them are Russians (48.6%) and Tatars (47.6%). In terms of numbers, the Chuvash (0.8%), the Ukrainians (0.4%) and the Mari (0.3%) also fall into the top five.
You can understand what the third capital of Russia is only by visiting it. The city has many faces and is interesting in its history. Being once a major trading center at the intersection of the eastern and western routes, he acquired his own unique flavor. Dynamic and measured, ancient and modern, susceptible to new ideas and not forgetting about traditions, this is a many-sided and contrast Kazan.