Judicial reform of Alexander 2. The reforms of Alexander 2 briefly
Alexander 2 went down in history as the king-reformer. It was he who made the greatest number of transformations in the country, significantly changing the position of Russia on the world stage. The activities of the king gave controversial assessments: some considered him almost holy, while others sincerely wished the death of the monarch. A series of attempts were made on him, each time Alexander was saved by a real miracle. But at sixty-two, he died from an explosion of a bomb thrown at his feet. The tragic death of the emperor shook Russia and gave rise to a number of prohibitions and a departure from the liberal course, which Alexander led. The reform of Alexander 2, associated with the abolition of serfdom, the modernization of the judicial system, educational reforms - all this went down in history as the largest changes in Russian society.
Judicial Reform (1864)
Judicial reform of Alexander 2 was a turning point in the Russian proceedings.Courts are now divided into two parts: the local was engaged in the affairs of the townspeople and peasants, and the district - more serious crimes. A jury trial was introduced, whose members could belong to any class. His powers included the consideration of serious crimes. Discrimination was abolished: absolutely everyone was equal before the judiciary. Decisions were not taken in secret, it was impossible to change the judge if he was not satisfied with the participants of the process for some reason. The rules were the same for everyone and could not change during the meeting. In addition, the administrative division of the country changed: now the empire was divided into districts.
Judicial reform of Alexander 2 deprived the emperor himself of real power in the courts, the only thing he could do was pardon the nobleman who was threatened with confiscation of property.
Zemsky reform (1864)
The next after the abolition of serfdom was the Zemstvo reform of Alexander 2. A new local government was introduced - the zemstvo, whose members were elected by vote (representatives of all classes received access to it). The zemstvos themselves were divided into administrative (Zemstvo assemblies) and executive (Zemstvo administrations) organs.Only rich people could be elected to local assemblies, and the representatives of each property class had their own elections. Later, participants in Zemsky assemblies appointed a chairman and a certain number of members of Zemstvo councils.
This reform of Alexander 2 allowed the creation of local authorities, whose powers included the solution of local issues. Such changes made it possible to significantly improve the lives of all segments of the population, to give more independence to the provinces and districts, but here there were also some disadvantages. Metamorphosis meant the compulsory collection of money from the population for the implementation of all the functions of zemstvos. So, the Alexander 2 Zemstvo reform allowed the new local authorities themselves to impose taxes and duties.
The abolition of serfdom (1861)
The great reform of Alexander 2 was a response to the increase in social tensions in the country. The question of the abolition of serfdom was already very long, but all previous monarchs constantly ignored him, oppressing the peasants more and more. Constantly there was a danger of insurrection, the kings understood that if all the peasantry were to rise, no one could resist it.That was the reason for the willful decision of Alexander.
February 19, 1861 saw the light of the Manifesto on the abolition of serfdom. But it was not so simple: the reform of Alexander 2 turned out to be inconsistent. The table will tell you more about it.Evaluation of the results of the abolition of serfdom
|Peasants became free from landlords||The peasants were obliged to buy land from landowners|
|Peasants could dispose of their own property.||As long as the peasant did not buy his land, he continued to perform all previous duties, if within ten years the peasant did not redeem the land, he could refuse it|
|Created electoral peasant self-government||The reform only extended to the European part of the empire.|
|The state was ready to give the peasant the amount of money he needed to purchase the land, he was given an installment plan for 49 years||The peasant had to return the loan for the redemption of the land with huge interest: he paid the state two or three times as much as he did|
The peasant reform of Alexander 2 can be briefly described as follows: the formal liberation of the peasants, but the preservation of their dependence on the landlords in reality.
Military Reform (1857)
As part of universal conscription in Russia, military settlements were created - peculiar camps, where part of the day the peasants performed their duties on the ground, and the rest of the time they were trained by the commanders. First of all, the reform of Alexander 2 eliminated these settlements.
Changes were also made in the area of military service: the exact number of draftees was annually appointed, and all those over the age of 21 drafted lots to determine who would go to serve. Of course, there were certain benefits: they did not take away the only breadwinner, the only son or the one whose older brother served in the army. Military education reduced the service life in the army, which varied depending on the unit.
The reform of Alexander 2 touched upon the administration: military districts were created, each of which was headed by a local governor-general. The army received a new weapon, were created railway troops. The prisoner now, if he did not go over to the side of the enemy, was considered a victim and received monetary compensation for the time he spent in captivity.
The great reform of Alexander 2 made it possible to create a strong, albeit small army, which had a huge number of people in reserve.The technical modernization and revision of the command had a positive effect on the combat readiness of the troops.
Education Reform (1864)
And education has not bypassed the reform of Alexander 2. The table will tell you more about all the innovations.Education reform
Students chose rectors, deans and professors themselves and were responsible for the life of the university.
Development of science
|Charter of gymnasiums||The right to enter for all classes, but only rich people could afford training|
|Modernization of female education||
Creation of open educational institutions for girls of all classes
Open special courses for higher education
The reform of Alexander 2 touched and periodicals. The state has always controlled what the writers wrote, but with the introduction of reform, the situation has changed dramatically: now works that have been larger than a certain number of pages have not been censored. Scientific works and state publications were not subject to censorship at all.
Urban Reform (1870)
It became a logical continuation of the Zemstvo.The city reform of Alexander 2 can be briefly described as follows: the introduction of self-government in the cities. Now all power was transferred to the city councils and governing bodies, who were already responsible to the higher persons. Only prosperous people could claim a place in the organs of self-government.
After Peter the Great, not a single tsar carried out so many transformations in Russia as Alexander 2. His contribution to the development of the country is truly invaluable. The reforms of Alexander 2 changed the state stuck in the Middle Ages, marking the beginning of a new page in the history of Russia.