Integration is in psychology ... Concept, essence and types of interaction
At the heart of the organization of society is communication. This is a special process that helps to solve household, business and scientific problems, a certain mutual influence of individuals, which is called interaction. This concept is common to a number of disciplines (psychology, philosophy, sociology, etc.). In this article we will understand the nuances of interaction and consider its types.
Translated from English, the term "interaction" literally means "interaction". It was introduced by a Chicago scholar, the founder of social interactionism, George Herbert Mead in 1960. According to the author's concept, the behavior of a certain society is not considered as a manifestation of separate individuals, but as a complex group activity. Therefore, the adherents of the new psychological direction were interested in the ways of interaction of people in the group. These were:
- exchange of opinions and experience;
- creating a unified strategy;
- mutual understanding;
- conflict, competition ("ineffective interaction");
- Consideration of the situation through the eyes of the opposite side (interlocutor).
The idea of JG Mead was picked up by the Russian sociologist Pitirim Sorokin. He identified the pivot points for social interaction:
- At least two people are needed for interaction.
- To feel the interlocutor (partner), in the course of communication, attention should be paid to everything (gestures, facial expressions, actions).
- Thoughts, feelings and opinions should be in resonance with all participants of the interaction.
In psychology, interaction is a concept that emphasizes the interaction of people through verbal and non-verbal means. The subject of analysis is how interpersonal relationships are built up, what characteristics of the subject and line of conduct lead to agreement or contradictions in communication.
Unlike many others, the concept of interaction came into psychology from sociology, and not vice versa. And consideration of it, as in the related discipline, should begin with the micro level - the family. That it is the basic model of the interaction of people, where the formation of the child's personality.This process occurs through the prism of behavioral reactions in response to activities, exchange of gestures, facial expressions and words of the growing individual, through the perception of it by other family members. Then a person moves to other social levels (friends, work team, society as a whole), bringing with them already worked out models of relationships, adjusting them and adjusting them to new circumstances.
Psychologists distinguish three components in human communication: communication, perception and interaction. Of course, in a real conversation, online, this separation is not felt at all, because all components are intertwined and realized simultaneously. However, in the theory of psychology, each component has its own problematic, tasks and semantic distinction.
- So under the communication refers to the information exchange, which make individuals. It is due, as a rule, cognitive (cognitive) needs. The communicative element is fundamental, the core. Therefore, often "communication" and "communication" are synonymous.
- Perception refers to the perception of each other by the participants.This phenomenon is quite deep, because, in addition to the emotional factor, it includes cognition, the primary (surface) analysis of words, gestures, actions of a partner in a conversation and the formation of responses.
- The third party is interaction. In psychology, this concept defines the implementation of joint actions of the participants in communication, i.e. mutual influence on each other. If we consider human communication in an interactive way, then this interaction can be divided into three processes:
- interaction arising in a common activity, united by common goals and objectives (labor, play, cognitive);
- the influence of one individual on another: suggestion, persuasion;
- mutual influence of the parties.
Often, by “parties” is meant not so much an individual personality as the whole social communities. Thus, the interaction is a set of reactions of the members of the group at each other. This is the ability to try on the role of another on yourself.
Types of interactions
There is a very strict classification of interaction. Its essence lies in a clear distinction between the interaction of people according to the principle of effectiveness and impact.So joint social activities can be effective and ineffective. The first one assumes the high importance of the partner (friend, colleague, interlocutor, etc.) as individuals. Here there is a productive exchange of information and experience, mutually beneficial cooperation. In the case of the type of interaction ineffective, each individual is fixated solely on his desires and needs without trying to feel and understand the other. As a result, such interaction leads to conflict or competition.
For the implementation of social interaction requires certain signals that will establish interpersonal contact. These include verbal and non-verbal means. From this position, there are:
- Verbal (speech) interaction. The strength of speech influence can determine the timbre of the voice, expressiveness of speech, the expression of his opinion or attitude to the situation.
- Non-verbal interaction. It is caused by proxemics (communication system using signals, gestures) and includes the following mechanisms:
- partner’s posture (she can talk about his closed-openness for communication, relaxation-tension);
- adjustment and synchronicity of the interlocutor in gestures and facial expressions;
- position in space (use of the minimum zone or, on the contrary, the seizure of territory due to the unfolding of things, objects, documents in the general field of activity).
Integration is always the interaction of people in a group. Their relations can be built for different reasons and principles. In social psychology, many attempts have been made to create a more fractional structure for describing human relationships, to single out the forms of interaction. The most popular scheme belongs to the American psychologist Robert Biles. He combined the actions of the group members with joint activities into 12 categories and distributed them in three axes:
- friendliness and hostility towards other band members;
- domination and submission;
- involvement in teamwork and unwillingness to take authority.
However, this scheme has been criticized. The argument was made to focus only on the formal criteria of interaction. And this excludes consideration of the content of group activities, i.e. what individuals do.
Among others, the classification was presented in four areas. In her two axes belonged to the emotional sphere of a person (positive and negative emotions). And two were associated with the formulation of problems and how to solve them.
Interaction and manipulation
Human communication is a mutual influence. But it happens not on equal positions. In any social group there are dominant subjects. Therefore, interaction with elements of manipulation falls into a special group of psychological analysis.
Hidden control takes place against the will of man. These include suggestion (suggestion), trance induction. A partner may be involved in a game of guilt or fear. The use of flattery in speech also applies to manipulative techniques.
Summarizing the article, it is important to focus on the key points:
- Integration is a component of communication. And that means that it, along with perception and communication, performs educational, regulatory and evaluative functions. However, the communicator may be road signs, media, and social networks. And the interaction involves the direct interaction of people.It helps in organizing joint activities to achieve goals. In the process of such communication, a person changes, grows, enriches with new meanings.
- Integration is a multilateral phenomenon that can lead either to cooperation (partnership) or to conflict. Everything will depend on the means and signals used, the behavioral reactions of individuals, their emotional level.
- A literal translation, or a synonym for interaction, is an interaction involving joint (group activity). However, in the study of this direction it is necessary to take into account the types of relationships between people. They, in turn, dictate certain models or forms of interaction. In psychology, this gave impetus to the creation of several schemes. However, due to the wide variation of interpersonal relations and the individual characteristics of the subjects, there is still no universal.
- Today, sociological and psychological developments are successfully used to build a successful business, conduct team-building and various trainings on personal growth.