Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (PRC)
From ancient times, the Chinese divided Mongolia into internal and external. The Mongolian Republic is now called external, during the Xinhai Revolution it gained independence from Tsin China. Inner Mongolia is officially considered part of North China. But its large length from east to west leads to the fact that part of this autonomous region is located in northwestern and northeastern China. One of the five autonomous regions of China is Inner Mongolia. She is otherwise called Namangu. Hohhot is the capital of a region like Inner Mongolia. The largest cities are Baotou (24.7 million people), Ulan-Had (Chifeng), Tongliao, Jining. More than 1.1 million square meters. km occupies the territory of Inner Mongolia. About 23.35 million people live here.
Border with Mongolia and Russia
Inner Mongolia is bordered by Mongolia and Russia. A long stretch of the border with Mongolia is located in the north of this autonomous region, and in the northeast there is a section of the border with Russia.There are 18 border crossings in total. The city of Manchuria is the largest land checkpoint in China. A railroad passes through the border in Manchuria, and the automobile route called “Godao-301” ends here. 60% of China’s exports to Russia go through this city. The largest checkpoint on the border with Mongolia is located in Ehren-Khoto.
Inner Mongolia is called the “kingdom of pastures” in China. It is located in the upper tributaries of such rivers as the Nenjiang, Liaohe and Yellow River. The province of Inner Mongolia is divided into six parts in accordance with the geological structure: the Khetao and Songliao plains, the Ordos plateau, the Yanshan and Xing'an mountains, and the Mongolian highland. Agriculture is concentrated mainly on the Khetao plain, in the Xing'an, Yanshan and Yinshan mountains and in the west of the Liaohe plain.
12 district level units include Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (PRC): 3 aimaks and 9 urban districts. Aimak is a traditional territorial unit of Mongolia, equated in the PRC to districts. It exists only in Inner Mongolia.Aimaks and urban districts include other traditional units - khoshuns, which are equal to counties, as well as somons, which are units of the volost level.
Climate and crops
Most sunny days per year (65%) fall on the growing season. The average annual air temperature in Inner Mongolia is 2-8 ° C. From 100 to 165 days - the duration of the vegetative period. Here is a sharply continental climate. From 200 to 450 mm of precipitation falls on this territory annually. Their number decreases from north-east to south-west. Summer accounts for 70% of the rain. Corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, sorghum, millet, potatoes, rye, sunflower, sugar beets, castor and flax are grown here.
The region is dominated by hills. Their average height is over a thousand meters. This territory is therefore called the Mongol highlands. Huge areas are reserved for pastures and meadows. The two most famous of them are Xinlingul and Hulunbur. The largest lakes are the Boer and Hulun. The second longest river in all of China, the Yellow River, runs in the southwest of this region.Inner Mongolia in China serves as a natural protective barrier in the north.
The economy of Inner Mongolia
Since 1949, the economy has been actively developing in the region. The extraction of natural minerals, rare metals, and metallurgy represents the main sectors of the economy. About 60 different types of minerals are mined here, among them the largest reserves of silver and gold. Livestock areas cover almost 2/3 of the territory. In Inner Mongolia, pastures are the most extensive in China. Rich forest resources are concentrated in the Xing'an Mountains. Sheep, oxen and horses are raised in Inner Mongolia. The main local products are high-quality wool, fur, carpets and huanghei carp.
The main attractions of this area are the mausoleum of Genghis Khan, the temple of the Five Pagodas, the monastery of U Dan, the tomb of Wang Zhaojun, and the Russian-Chinese market located in Manzhouli. The Nadam Fair is held annually in honor of the harvest festival. The Mongols are hospitable and always welcome guests coming from all over the world. They treat them when they meet tea and butter.
Nadam in Mongolian means "entertainment."This fair is believed to have been established by Genghis Khan, the ruler who conquered vast areas of Asia. Nadam through 7 centuries became the most famous holiday in Mongolia. During it, competitions in shooting, wrestling, and horse racing are held. They once served to demonstrate courage and strength. Today their value is almost as great as before. These competitions are especially popular among the Mongols. Nadam is usually held in May-June, but in 2000 this festival was held for the first time in winter. In winter, the daytime temperatures can drop to -30 ° C. However, despite this, about 500 athletes took part in competitions - from China, Russia, USA, Kazakhstan, Italy, the Republic of Korea and Mexico.
Hohhot means "green city" in Mongolian. Indeed, the capital of Inner Mongolia is covered on three sides, except the southern, by the dense forests of the Great Green Mountains. It is located in the heart of Inner Mongolia. Main industries: engineering, wool, chemical, tanning, steel, dairy products and sugar. The main attractions are the temple of the Five Pagodas, the tomb of Zhaojun and the Dazhao Monastery.
Tomb of Zhaojun
This tomb is located in the southwestern part of Hohhot. The concubine of the Han emperor Wang Zhaojun is buried here. Changyu, the leader of the Huns, in 22 BC He offered to take one of the court girls as his wife in order to consolidate his ties with the Han Empire. The choice fell on Wang Zhaojun. The girl willingly moved to the wild places and spent the rest of her life with the Huns. She was revered in ancient China as one of the four most beautiful women.
This is one of the largest Lamaist temples located in northern China. It resembles the temple of the Lama in Beijing, but it is smaller in size. Dazhao is called the father of the Lama temple in Beijing. It was built during the reign of Kangxi, the emperor of Ching (years of rule - from 1654 to 1722). And in Beijing, the Lama temple was erected under his son, Yongzheng (the reign was from 1723 to 1735).
Mausoleum of Genghis Khan
Timuchin - the real name of this great Mongolian commander. He was buried in the Galdeli steppe, located in the southwestern part of the Inner Mongolia region in China. The area of the mausoleum is 1500 sq.m. It consists of 3 palaces, whose shape is a yurt with a roof covered with tiles.The gallery connecting all three "yurts" runs from east to west. A staircase consisting of 81 steps leads to the gate. Palace of Genghis Khan is located in the south-eastern part. The ruler lived here when he left the capital.
Temple of Genghis Khan
In the northern part of the region of interest to us in China is the temple of Genghis Khan, the only one in the world. $ 26.5 million cost the project of its restoration. This temple is located in the city of Ulan-Khoto (Inner Mongolia region). The future ruler of Genghis Khan was born in a noble family. He united the Mongol tribes in 1206. Khan Khubilai, one of his grandchildren, who reigned from 1260 to 1294, later became the first emperor of the Yuan dynasty. In 1940, Genghis Khan's temple was built. There is also an exhibition hall, an altar and a palace.
The 5,000-kilometer wall, about 800 years old, was discovered in a place like the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia. It was built by the nomadic Hun tribes from 1123 to 1198. These tribes founded the Jin Empire. From the west bank. Nenjiang, located in Heilongjiang Province, stretches the wall to the city of Baotou, located in the south of Inner Mongolia. She was nicknamed the "Jin shaft."More than 2000 years of history of the construction of walls in China. About 40 thousand km of walls were built in 16 provinces. Inner Mongolia (PRC) is a territory in which there are 15 thousand km of them. Another wall built during the reign of the Jin dynasty wall is located near the mountains of Daxingling.
In the northeastern part of modern China, on the border with Mongolia and Russia, are the vast meadows of Hulunbur. The area of the territory is 253 thousand square meters. km This is a larger area of provinces such as Jiangsu and Shandong combined. 31 nationalities live here. The State Council recently decided to turn it into a Hulunbur National Reserve. 133 thousand hectares of meadows by 2001 became pastures, another 266 thousand hectares - in 2005. This territory can be called an oxygen factory for the whole of China. Hundreds of different types of medicinal herbs grow here. Local lamb is distinguished by its good taste, since sheep feed on these herbs. Shepherds perfectly cook dishes from it, make butter from milk, dairy mino and tea with milk.
A bright pearl among pastures is Hulun Lake. Its length is 80 km, and its width is about 33 km.It occupies an area of 2339 square meters. km - this is the fifth place among all Chinese freshwater sources after Lake Voianhu, Taihu, Dongting and Hongze. Being on its shore, it seems that you are standing at the very edge of the ocean. 31 species of shrimp and fish inhabit here. In order to preserve the fish population, the local administration decided to ban its fishing during spawning. Ice fishing is especially popular here. Fishermen in the thick ice drill a hole and catch fish through it. The construction of the Baotou-Hohhot highway was completed in December 2001.
The city of Ordos in the province of Inner Mongolia
In China, there are many cities, ghost airports and shopping centers, empty for years. The authorities declare that all these objects are being built "for growth", and they will be filled by people once. The government simultaneously “accelerates” the economy in such a way, increasing GDP.
The city of Ordos began to build in 2003. By 2010, on an area of 355 square meters. km was located settlement, which is designed for 1 million inhabitants. The population density in it, by the way, is 4 times less than in Moscow. That is, even such a super-populated country as China can afford to build spacious cities.However, by the end of 2013, Ordos was inhabited only by 2%. Today it is home to only about 20 thousand people. In 2008-2009, the main developer set housing prices at 11 thousand dollars per square meter. m. They have fallen 2-3 times today, but these prices are too high for the majority of residents of Inner Mongolia, because their average salary is about 400-500 dollars. The Chinese government intends to buy some of the empty areas of this city for retired military, but there will be about 20-25 thousand people here, that is 2-2.5% of the current 2% of the total population, for which Ordos is designed. This city today will reach 100% of the planned population only in 40-50 years.