Hes - what is it? List of the largest hydropower plants in Russia
HPP is a hydroelectric power plant that converts the energy of a water stream into electrical energy. The flow of water, falling on the blades, rotates the turbines, which, in turn, drive the generators, which convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Hydroelectric power plants are built on river beds, and dams and reservoirs are usually built.
Principle of operation
The basis of the work of the HPP is the energy of the falling water. Due to the difference in levels, the river water forms a continuous stream from the source to the mouth. The dam is an integral part of almost all hydroelectric power plants, blocking the movement of water in the river bed. Before the dam a reservoir is formed, creating a significant difference in the water level before and after it.
The upper and lower levels of water are called the pool, and the difference between them is the height of the fall or head. The principle of operation is quite simple. A turbine is installed at the downstream, on the blades of which a stream is directed from the upstream.The falling water flow drives the turbine, and it rotates the rotor of the electric generator through a mechanical connection. The greater the pressure and the amount of water passing through the turbines, the higher the capacity of the hydroelectric station. The efficiency is about 85%.
There are three factors for efficient energy production in hydropower plants:
- Year-round guaranteed water availability.
- Favorable relief. The presence of canyons and extremes contribute to hydraulic construction.
- Greater river slope.
The operation of a hydroelectric power plant has several, including comparative features:
- The cost of electricity produced is substantially less than at other types of power plants.
- Renewable energy source.
- Depending on the amount of energy that the hydroelectric station must produce, its generators can be quickly turned on and off.
- Compared to other types of power plants, HPPs have a much smaller effect on the air environment.
- Basically, HPPs are objects remote from consumers.
- The construction of hydropower plants is very capital intensive.
- Reservoirs occupy large areas.
- The construction of dams and the construction of reservoirs block many species of fish from reaching spawning grounds, which radically changes the nature of fisheries. But at the same time, fish farms are organized in the reservoir itself, and fish stocks are increasing.
Hydroelectric power plants are divided by the nature of the erected structures:
- Hydropower stations are the most common stations in the world, in which the pressure is created by a dam. They are built on rivers with a predominantly small bias. To create a large pressure under the reservoir flooded significant areas.
- Derivational - stations, built on mountain rivers with a large slope. The required pressure is created in the bypass (diversion) channels with a relatively low water flow. Part of the flow of the river through the water intake is sent to the pipeline, which creates pressure, which drives the turbine.
- Pumped storage stations. They help the power system cope with peak loads. Hydraulic units of such stations are capable of operating in pumping and generating mode. They consist of two reservoirs in different levels, connected by a pipeline with a hydraulic unit inside.At high loads, the water is discharged from the upper reservoir to a lower one, with the turbine rotating and generating electricity. With low demand, water is pumped back from the low storage to the higher one.
Hydropower of Russia
Today in Russia more than 100 MW of electric power are generated at 102 hydroelectric power plants. The total capacity of all hydropower units of the hydropower plants of Russia is about 45 million kW, which corresponds to the fifth place in the world. The share of hydropower plants in the total amount of electricity generated in Russia is 21% - 165 billion kWh / year, which also corresponds to the 5th place in the world. By the number of potential hydropower resources, Russia ranks second after China with an indicator of 852 billion kWh, but the degree of their development is only 20%, which is significantly lower than in almost all countries of the world, including developing ones. For the development of hydro potential and the development of the Russian energy sector in 2004, the Federal Program was created to ensure the reliable operation of operating hydropower plants, the completion of existing construction projects, and the design and construction of new stations.
List of the largest hydropower plants in Russia
- Krasnoyarskaya HPP - Divnogorsk, on the Yenisei River.
- Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Station - Bratsk, r. Angara.
- Ust-Ilim - Ust-Ilim, r. Angara.
- Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP - Sayanogorsk.
- Boguchanskaya HPP - on the river. Angara.
- Zhigulevskaya HPP - Zhigulevsk, r. Volga.
- Volzhskaya HPP - Volzhsky, Volgograd Region, the Volga River.
- Cheboksary - Novocheboksarsk, the Volga River.
- Bureyskaya HPP - pos. Talakan, Bureya river.
- Nizhnekamsk HPP - Chelny, r. Kama.
- Votkinskaya - Tchaikovsky, r. Kama.
- Chirkeyskaya - river. Sulak.
- Zagorsk PSP is a river. Cunha
- Zeya - city Zeya, p. Zeya
- Saratovskaya HPP - river. Volga.
In the past, the Stalingrad and Volgograd HPPs, and now Volzhskaya, located in the same city of Volzhsky on the Volga River, are a medium-sized river-bed type station. Today it is considered the largest hydropower plant in Europe. The number of hydraulic units - 22, electric power - 2592.5 MW, the average annual amount of electricity generated is 11.1 billion kWh. The capacity of the waterworks is 25,000 m3 / s. Most of the electricity generated is supplied to local consumers.
The construction of hydropower plants started in 1950.The launch of the first hydraulic unit was carried out in December 1958. The Volga Hydroelectric Power Station was fully operational in September 1961. Commissioning played a crucial role in the integration of significant power systems of the Volga region, Center, South and the energy supply of the Lower Volga region and the Donbass. Already in the 2000s, several upgrades were carried out, which made it possible to increase the total capacity of the station. In addition to the production of electricity, the Volzhskaya HPP is used to irrigate the dry land areas of the Trans-Volga region. Road and railway crossings across the Volga are arranged at the waterworks facilities, which provide communication between the Volga regions between themselves.