HPP Cheboksary: description, history and interesting facts
The Cheboksary hydroelectric station is part of the large Volga cascade of power stations. It is located between the Zhiguli and and represents the fifth step of the complex. Today, this station is a branch of JSC RusHydro. The Cheboksary hydroelectric station produces capacities of 1,404 MW and is considered one of the most important economic facilities in the country.
The construction project for the Cheboksary HPP was approved by the USSR Council of Ministers in January 1967. However, the history of this most important object for the country's economy began much earlier - in 1931 It was then that the USSR put forward the idea of creating a cascade of hydropower stations on the Volga and Kama. According to the project developed by specialists of the Academy of Sciences, in the European part of the country they were to create a deep-water route connecting the Black, Caspian, White and Baltic seas.
In the pre-war years, the Uglich, Rybinsk and Ivankovskaya hydropower plants were built according to this scheme. In the future, the project of the cascade was repeatedly corrected.The number of stations and their planned capacities were constantly changing. However, the Cheboksary HPP has always remained part of the cascade scheme. The design task for the construction of this object was developed in the 50s.
According to the plan approved in 1967, the Cheboksary HPP was to be built by 1981. Preparation for the construction of this important facility was carried out for about 5 years. The first concrete work at the site of the future hydropower plant began in 1973. The Volga overlap near the station was completed by 1980. On the New Year's Eve in 1981, the first hydraulic unit was launched at the Cheboksary HPP. Its capacity was 78 MW. He issued the first kilowatts to the country's unified power grid on January 3.
Description of the object
The following two hydraulic units were launched at the station in the same year of 1981. In the future, the station’s capacity was gradually increased. In the period from 1982 to 1984, 4 units were commissioned at the hydroelectric station each year. In 1985, two of them were launched, and in 1986 - one.
At present, the station is registered as Cheboksarskaya HPP. A total of 18 hydraulic units operate on it. It also includes:
- the hydroelectric power station itself, combined with a water discharge;
- weirs and earth dam;
- single stage double thread gateway;
- fencing dykes;
- OUTs on 220 and 500 kW.
The pressure facilities of the Cheboksary HPP are divided into two parts by a small island. To its left is an earthen dam, the total length of which is 3,375 m. This structure, in turn, also consists of two parts. The channel dam was built of sandy soils. Its length is 980 m, and its height is 42 m. The floodplain station dam is large. In length, this structure stretches for 2375 m. The maximum height of this dam is 20 m.
The building of the hydroelectric power station, the gateway and the dam of the avanport are located in the right bank of the station. Here the concrete spillway dam stretched. Its total length is 144 m. A motor road passes through the station’s pressure facilities. Partly this highway is realized by bridges.
The capacity of the Cheboksary hydroelectric station produces quite large ones. All 18 of its units are equipped with rotary-blade turbines. The diameter of their impellers is as much as 10 meters. With a design head of 18.9 m, each of the turbines develops a capacity of 78 MW. The only exception is the last unit. Its capacity is 48 MW.The turbines of the station are controlled by operators from the central console.
Some time ago, work began at the station aimed at modernizing and reconstructing outdated equipment. Now, operators have, for example, the ability to change the angle of rotation of the turbine blades, depending on the pressure and load.
The length of the main building of the Cheboksary HPP is 548.54 m. In addition to the hydraulic units themselves, there are bottom spillways in it.
This facility is located at the station directly behind the hydroelectric power station. It was erected to protect the waters and the safe approach of ships to the gateways. Another such dam also encloses the lower channel of the water area.
As with any other hydroelectric station, the actual delivery of electricity itself at the Cheboksary station is carried out with the switchyard. The latter is located on the right bank of the Volga and includes a total of 5 blocks. Two of them give a capacity of 220 kW, and three more - 500 kW.
It transmits the energy of the Cheboksary hydroelectric station to the general system of the country along two lines. One of them is designed for 220 kW, the second - for 500 kW. The design capacity of the station, as already mentioned, is 1,404 MW.At the same time, the average annual output of hydroelectric power plants is 3.6 billion kWh.
Volga - navigable river. Therefore, the station’s project initially provided for an access gateway. The design of this element of the dam has a double thread. Its chambers are marked with the numbers 17 and 18 and have dimensions of 290х30 m. The gateway of the hydroelectric power station was accepted for permanent operation in 1989. Unlike similar structures at other Volga stations, it is supplemented with a special distribution system for filling chambers. This design eliminates the formation of waves in the gateways, which prevents the swaying of ships.
Today, this station, as already mentioned, is a branch of RusHydro. The Cheboksary hydroelectric station, therefore, is part of a huge corporation and the object is really very significant and large. Once the construction of this station had the strongest influence on the ecology of the adjacent territory. Even the climate in this area has become a bit more humid. And no wonder. The total area of the reservoir formed by dams of this station is as much as 1080 km.2. Seasonal flow regulation at this station is not provided. In addition to the Volga itself, the Cheboksary reservoir extends to its major tributaries, the Sura and Vetluga.
According to the project, the total area of the reservoir of the Cheboksary hydroelectric station was to be 2145 km.2. However, unfortunately, the station was once set up at a low water level. Its units operate at an intermediate mark of 63 m with low efficiency. That is, the construction of the Cheboksary hydroelectric station is still not over. This, by the way, is recorded including in official documents.
After the station is completed, its reservoir will spread not only to Sura and Vetluga, but also to the Oka River (at 83 km). Along the length of the Volga, it will reach the dam of the Nizhny Novgorod hydroelectric station. In this way, the project of the 30s on the deep-sea route along the river will be implemented. Of course, seasonal adjustment systems will also be installed at the facility when the water level is raised.
Unfortunately, at the moment the implementation of the initial project of the station in the plans of the management of "RusHydro" is not included. The level of the Cheboksary hydroelectric station, apparently, will remain at 63 m for a long time. However, even now the reservoir of this important object occupies simultaneously the territories belonging to Chuvashia, Nizhny Novgorod region and the Republic of Mari El, that is, is quite large.
The Cheboksary HPP facility is, in a way, even unique in its own way. In fact, this station is almost half a century unfinished. Another interesting fact is connected with this hydroelectric station. The federal highway passes through the Volga not only along its dam, but also along the roof of the main building (combined with the bridge). Moreover, the passage in this place has two whole lanes in each direction.