How to become an astronaut and fly into space? What you need to become an astronaut in Russia?
Flying into space is the impossible dream of millions! But over time, even it becomes closer. The number of people who have already overcome gravity exceeded five hundred. So how to become an astronaut?
How it all began
The Soviet Union and the United States of America organized not only an arms race. Cosmos has also become an indicator of superpower power. The leadership of both countries urgently needed an answer to the question of how to fly first in space by all means! Who won this race, is known to the whole world, as is the name of Yuri Gagarin. Then the Americans visited the Moon several times. However, behind all these loud achievements and feats, sometimes people forget about the work of many people who were involved in the preparation of the first cosmonauts.
Aircraft in those days were not particularly reliable.For example, the chance of returning alive Yury Gagarin was calculated as one to one. And because in the first space teams recruited only the best. As a rule, only military pilots were candidates. In the US, to get to the extended list, it was required to have a crazy number of flight hours and a half thousand skydiving! And out of more than five hundred candidates, only eight were left. And had to fly alone.
During the selection of candidates subjected to inhuman tests: they were forced to survive in desert conditions without water and food, closed for many days in isolated chambers. Something similar to the latter, by the way, applies now. But more on that later.
In our country, the selection criteria were no less severe. And it is all the more surprising that, nevertheless, the profession of a woman-cosmonaut has appeared. With all due respect, the flight of Valentina Tereshkova was in many respects a political decision. It was known that a female cosmonaut is suffering worse overload. And Valentina Tereshkova had a very hard time in orbit. In the Soviet Union and Russia, women who have been in space can be counted on the fingers of one hand.Such a tradition seems to have taken shape. Meanwhile, both the European Space Agency and NASA regularly send women into space. In many respects this was possible due to the fact that flights are now more comfortable and safe. To a certain extent, of course.
Why is it so difficult
A person watching television reports from the International Space Station may be asked what is so difficult about it. Several people have fun moving in zero gravity, waving to the audience with their hands, smiling. From the side it looks very cool. But in order to list all the difficulties of flight, this article simply does not have enough space.
At the start, the human body experiences overloads that exceed its weight many times over. Therefore, experts make a chair for each astronaut on the cast of his body. This is done so that tremendous pressure does not damage the fragile bones and internal organs of a person. In the chair, the astronaut spends several starting minutes, often unconscious.
The next difficulty is the body's behavior in zero gravity. And it's not just a violation of coordination of movements.After returning to Earth, the astronauts cannot walk at all without the help of special devices, because the muscles of the body will strongly atrophy. The complete recovery process after the flight takes six months. Think about it, is it worth it ... And then there is the psychological component: for several months you will have to be in a small confined space in the company of unfamiliar people and work productively with them.
What is the situation today
It is believed that now in Russia, the popularity of both spaceflight and related professions has fallen dramatically. Perhaps this is due to the fact that modern boys dream more about becoming businessmen, directors and presidents. And the unattainability of the goal also plays an important role. And because the number of those wishing to become astronauts greatly reduced. But choose something from someone needs. And prepare people for the flight have not one year. And it is not known whether this or that candidate will reach the end of the training cycle. Meanwhile, space and science set new and new tasks for people. And in orbit it is necessary to conduct experiments every day. Therefore, to be a military pilot to become an astronaut is not enough.Rather, now this is not the only way.
Currently, it is believed that there are three ways in which you can get into space. The first is, as mentioned above, the career of a military pilot. Here you will need an impeccable reputation and a personal matter, an excellent diploma, good physical fitness and health. With all this, you can safely apply to the Interdepartmental Commission for the Selection of Astronauts (we will describe it later).
The second way is a prestigious technical university, best of all, of course, associated with aircraft and rocket science. Having received such education, you will be able to get a job in a state organization that is engaged in the construction of spacecraft. And after a couple of years, feel free to submit an application to the same MVK. The requirements for physical and psychological preparation in this case are as relevant as the crystal clear past. Even an unpaid parking penalty in the wrong place or excessive lovingness can prevent you from becoming an astronaut. Be sure the relevant authorities turn your life inside out.
The third way is a good medical or biological university.It is not a secret for anyone that qualified doctors are now needed to work on the ISS. And for carrying out various experiments there are also needed scientists, including biologists. The requirements for physical, psychological and moral health are as high as in the first two cases.
Cosmonaut Training Center
This institution is located in Star City, in the Moscow region. On the specified closed object and prepare future astronauts. Some of them live on its territory, and with their families. Here they know everything about what it takes to become an astronaut. By the way, there are several variations of this profession. First, you are enrolled in the detachment of candidates for astronauts, in which the selection continues. And only after some (indefinite) time you get the status of a test cosmonaut, and with it the prospect of flight. And, perhaps, very remote. One of the Russian cosmonauts made his first flight when he was fifty ...
As mentioned above, in recent years, the selection situation has changed a lot. As, however, and the health of the nation. And if earlier, when detecting the slightest deviation from the norm, a strict medical commission (and, by the way, there are two of them with different composition) would immediately reject the candidate,now she can refer you for treatment (if the latter is acceptable).
For the first time in the history of our country, Roskosmos announced an open competitive selection for an astronaut squad. It happened in 2012. Moreover, the competition was really open - it was only necessary to meet certain requirements for education, physical training, etc. Anyone can read the provision on this selection on the website of the Cosmonaut Training Center. Naturally, Roskosmos will not hold such contests every year. So everyone can only follow the news on the official website and get ready.
Basic principles of selection
Before becoming an astronaut in Russia, you first need to obtain Russian citizenship. Then you should have a higher education (with experience in the specialty), no criminal record and no violations of the law in the field of protection of state secrets. Candidates over the age of thirty-three are not considered. It requires the absence of bad habits and good health. Higher education must be confirmed by a state diploma.You need experience in the specialty (priority is given to specialists in the aerospace industry) for at least five years. Also requires a good knowledge of Russian and English, confident computer skills, ability to use the Internet and antivirus programs. It is important to know both the history of the space industry and the device of the ship, as well as the principles of flight. Relevant ability to self-development and psychological stability.
Now you know how to become an astronaut in Russia. But will you succeed, the big question. How to fly into space, if the world community is now interested in very different questions? All less money invested in science. World powers no longer participate in the space race. And now this industry is supported in our country purely for political reasons, because in a market economy, human flights into space do not bring tangible income. The only thing you can earn now is the launch of satellites into orbit, but the niche will soon be filled.
We considered the question of how to become an astronaut. The choice is yours.