Most drivers of modern cars, equipped with various electronic security systems, prefer not to delve into their essence and device. Of course, they all once heard abbreviations such as ABS, ASR or ESP, or saw the corresponding inscriptions on the car’s panel, but only a few know what they mean and why they are provided for. Let's try to understand these systems, because it is not so difficult.
What is Traction Control System (APS)?
APS is a set of useful functions of the active safety of the machine, designed to ensure optimal grip on the wheels. It simplifies driving when starting, accelerating, braking and cornering. In addition, the MTA significantly helps the driver to cope with driving in slippery conditions.
The first anti-slip system was invented by American engineers and applied in 1971 on Buick cars. In 1987, Bosch developed APS for Mercedes-Benz cars.
But these were only mechanical types of modern security tools. And in the 1990s, the ASR (Anti-Slip Regulation) anti-slip system appeared. It was already a full-fledged APS, consisting of a set of hydraulic mechanisms controlled by electronics.
How does the anti-slip system work?
Most modern cars have an electro-hydraulic APS. It is controlled by the central control system and does not allow the wheels to slip, regardless of the speed of the vehicle.
Its main functions are:
- in reading and analyzing information from wheel sensors;
- in controlling the amount of torque transmitted from the engine to the wheels;
- in monitoring and controlling the drive wheel braking system.
Information from the sensors of angular velocity, located on the drive wheels, is transmitted to the main computer. If the traction control system detects a slip of one of them, it immediately reduces the engine speed or brakes the wheel with the help of electromagnetic valves in the brake system.
The choice of option depends on the speed of the car.If it is less than 80 km / h, APS uses the braking of the drive wheels. If the car moves at a higher speed, the traction control system sends a signal to the central computer, which instantly reduces engine speed.
Types of modern APS
Each automaker installs on their cars a security system of its own design. Because of this, for example, only the MTA has several names with different abbreviations:
- ASR - is installed on cars "Mercedes", "Audi", "Volkswagen";
- DSA - used exclusively for Opel cars;
- ASC - used on all BMW cars;
- TRC - installed on "Toyota";
- TCS is a proprietary development of Honda.
What is an ESP system?
In parallel with the MTA, other car security systems were developing. For example, the ESP anti-skid system was announced back in 1959, but it was only in 1995 that it was first tested and installed on Mercedes-Benz cars. The abbreviation stands for electronic system of exchange rate stabilization (stability). Its main function is to control the lateral dynamics of the chassis during skidding and lateral sliding at the entrance to the turn.
ESP is also controlled by the host computer and is turned on immediately when the ignition is turned on.It constantly cooperates with other security systems, such as ABS and ASR, and receives information from their sensors. In addition, the stability control system reads information from the controllers located on the steering wheel. In other words, she always knows with what speed the car moves, at what revolutions the engine works and how many degrees the steering wheel is turned.
ESP working principle
When these sensors give alarms to the central computer, the system processes them and decides how to correct the situation. In the case of skidding, roll or loss of the correct trajectory of the vehicle, the exchange rate stability system sends a signal to the ABS hydraulic modulator, which, in turn, begins to slow down the desired wheel or wheels. At the same time there is a decrease or increase in engine speed. On cars with automatic transmission, there is an additional speed switch in one direction or another.
Some modifications of the ESP system, in order not to interfere with the driver to make a timely and correct decision, may be included with some delay.