Heating furnace long burning with his own hands. Heating and cooking stoves
In the modern world there is a huge variety of heating systems for the home (boilers, batteries, heated floors, and the like). But the brick oven, made with your own hands or to order, still does not give up their positions. It can be found in almost every home.
Oven breathing: truth or fiction?
The heating furnaces made of brick are very popular due to the fact that they “breathe”. Say the same about stone ovens can not. Many do not understand what it means to "breathe." In fact, when heated, the heating furnace emits moisture vapor into the air, but after cooling it absorbs them into itself. As a result, the optimum dew point is preserved in the room. That is why a brick oven can be considered "healthier" than all the others.
Varieties of heating furnaces
All furnaces can be divided into three main groups:
- Direct-flow. These are heaters that are immediately equipped with a blower, where the amount of oxygen required for the complete combustion of gas or firewood enters. Through the blower, the air is directed upwards to the grate, where the firewood lies. Combustion products go to the pipe. The creation of such a device once became a real breakthrough in the field of heating. After all, now the smoke through the chimney was able to go outside, not remaining in the room. However, the disadvantage of such a furnace is that it takes a lot of heat through the pipe, so it has the lowest efficiency.
- Channel heating furnaces have become the next step in the development of a modern heating system. Smoke does not go straight into the chimney, but passes through the channels, giving its heat to the stove. Only after that he goes to the pipe. The efficiency of such a furnace is directly dependent on the number of revolutions, as well as on its length.
- Bell furnaces appeared only in the 20-30s of the last century. At first they were used in industry. Only by the middle of the last century began to build them in private homes. Hot air rises in the upper part of the furnace, which is called the cap.The cooled smoke falls down, being forced out by again warmed air. The main difference between a bell-type furnace and a channel furnace is that smoke is distributed not under the influence of thrust, but freely.
Russian stove: what is it?
We all have heard about traditional Russian stoves. Their main advantage over all other varieties was that they combined the functions of heating and cooking. Therefore, they are called so - heating and cooking stoves.
Currently, traditional Russian stoves have been replaced by new improved heating appliances. The device of modern furnaces allows to heat the room in a short time. This contributes to high efficiency.
Water circuit oven
A heating furnace with a water circuit is the possibility of heating the whole house. According to its characteristics resembles a boiler. That is, pipes and batteries are installed in different rooms, but the water is heated not through the boiler, but through the stove.
In order to build water heaters from bricks, it is not necessary to make any special bookmark. If you already have a stove, then simply install a special water tank, through which the entire system will heat up.
The water tank is made of steel that can withstand high temperatures. Wall thickness should not exceed 3-4 mm. If they are thicker, the heating time will increase. Accordingly, such a device will have less efficiency.
The stove in the house: where to build?
Heating furnaces for the house can be arranged anywhere. The main thing is to calculate everything so that the heater has maximum benefit. That is, it is desirable that with the help of a furnace several rooms were heated at once, and not just one.
Many people prefer to build stoves in the bath, especially Russian baths. With the help of a properly made oven, it will be very warm here, so no one will freeze.
Where else can a stove be arranged?
A brick oven can be used not only for space heating or cooking. On the street you can build a smokehouse, which can be a good source of income. In principle, when building a furnace in everyday life, it is important to choose a brick that will have excellent heat transfer after heating. That is, if the firebox is empty, then you can safely go to bed without fearing that a deadly amount of carbon monoxide is released into the room.
When creating production furnaces, on the contrary, a brick with low thermal conductivity is chosen.This allows you to create a high concentration of heat in the working area. It should also be borne in mind that the use of brick ovens is not recommended for heating greenhouses, poultry houses, cattle houses. Because of the smoke, plants can dry out and animals can get sick.
How to build a stove yourself?
A heating stove with your own hands is not as simple as it seems at first glance. After all, this process requires not only knowledge, but also sufficient experience. But having learned how to make a furnace on your own, in the future it will be possible to earn money from it. After all, not many people currently know the algorithm for creating a furnace. And he represents the following.
- The first step is to build a foundation. His removal above the floor should be at least 50 mm. For insulation, you can lay 2-3 layers of roofing material, and after - a few millimeters of basalt cardboard. Another layer is bedding. It should be wet, and it is impossible to begin laying before it dries.
- The first rows of masonry are made of ordinary bricks. Connection of bricks is carried out through the use of cement-sand mortar. This part of the furnace is called the topfilling.
- Then the flame part is laid out. As a rule, for its implementation using a ceramic kiln brick, alternating with fireclay. In this case, a clay-sand solution is required. A solution of pure clay is better not to use, because it gradually becomes limp from moisture, which is characteristic of the cold period.
- After this, it is necessary to install a blower door, for which a small hole should be left. Although it is better to mount the door immediately, as otherwise it may turn ugly.
- It is important that the lower transitions from channel to channel be 30-50% higher than the upper passes. Due to this, soot will accumulate in the lower part of the convector. From here it will be easy to remove. To do this, the edges of the passes are made round, and from the outside a filming tiled or brick cork is mounted.
- The internal cutting of the chimney is also very important, otherwise the long-burning heating furnace will let through the smoke that enters the room. Even if soot ignites, the chimney will take on all the heat, so there will be little time to fix this problem.
What factors to consider?
Anyway, in the process of planning the furnace must take into account several important factors.
- If a long-burning heating furnace is built, then at least 500 bricks should be involved in its creation. So, it will turn out pretty high. Therefore, it is desirable to build a small foundation for it. At the same time it is impossible that he had a mechanical connection with the foundation of the building, even if the heating and cooking stoves are installed in a new building;
- A low heating stove can be installed without additional foundations. In this case, you need to create good thermal insulation. For this, it is necessary to reinforce the flooring under the shield with lags;
- It is important that the cutting of the chimney does not come in contact with the ceiling beams, as this could cause a fire;
- The chimney should protrude approximately 500 mm above the roof.
What materials to use?
In order to have a high efficiency heating furnace, in the process of its creation it is necessary to use the following materials:
- masonry mortars;
- oven appliances.
Many people confuse furnace brick with refractory fireclay. However, they have little in common, more precisely, only one general characteristic - size. The fact is that when creating a furnace it is necessary to use a red high-quality brick, which is much more expensive.Fireclay bricks can also be used when you create a heating furnace with your own hands. But it is only suitable for the execution of the furnace part.
Sand is required for mortar. It is best to use mountain sand without inclusions (small or large stones, garbage). Other species contain too much organic matter, with the result that the seams can crack over time. But we must bear in mind that clean mountain sand is quite expensive.
During the laying of the furnace used sand-clay solutions. When buying clay, you need to smell it. If it smells good or unpleasant, then something has been added to it, because pure clay has no smell. This option is not suitable, as the seams sealed by it will crack.
Ovens are doors or latches. They are attached either directly during the laying of the furnace, or later. It is important that they are made of refractory material (steel).