Geopolitics analytics: features, interesting facts and examples
In recent decades, geopolitics analytics has become one of the most sought-after and promising areas of social science. The global changes that are occurring before our eyes require reflection and special analysis. Geopolitics, analytics and commentaries on various international issues are dealt with by people who have a wide range of competencies - military, diplomats, political scientists and economists. All these areas of knowledge intersect in what is commonly called geopolitics.
Definition of term
Geopolitics as a science directly connected with the territory is part of political geography. In their most traditional understanding of politics, geopolitics and analytics intersect in that part that concerns state territories, resources, their distribution and redistribution, as well as control over disputed territories and influence on third states.
Today it is customary to distinguish between three main categories of geopolitics: traditional, new (it is also called geoeconomics) and the newest (which is often called geophilosophy). Due to the fact that the world lives in the situation of victorious capitalism and the neoliberal political system, geo-economics, which are engaged in geopolitics and analytics, are of particular importance. In the world today, not so much military power as economic is of increasing importance, therefore the number of specialists studying the link between economics and politics is growing.
The concept that emerged at the end of the 19th century was originally called political geography. The problem of the new discipline was determined by the intellectual union of the political scientist Rudolph Kellen and the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel, who wrote the book Political Geography written in 1897.
The two global wars of the 20th century had a tremendous impact on policy analyst and geopolitics. After the Second World War, the dominant position in this science was occupied by the Cold War, military-strategic parity and mutual deterrence.
Somewhat later, issues such as globalization, a multipolar world, a superpower were actualized. In addition, separate parameters began to be allocated, according to which a separate state has advantages over others, for example, sports, nuclear weapons, and economic power.
Subject of scientific interest
Geopolitics and analytics of events in the world are of interest to a wide audience, being the subject of scientific interest of relevant specialists.
The main object of study for geopolitics is the geopolitical structure of the world, which is formed by very diverse state-territorial models. Geopolitics studies how control and its mechanisms are carried out in a certain territory, as well as the interaction of a certain territorial model with others.
The history of the formation of scientific concepts
The historical core of geopolitics is geography, which is joined by methods for studying ties in a single territory, as well as between the balance of world forces. In order to identify patterns, relationships and the balance of power, geopolitics uses a method of modeling and forecasting.
Geopolitics can also explore local problems, contexts and relationships, but all of these issues are considered only in a wider international context. In academic circles, geopolitical issues are considered using sociological, economic, geographic, and economic methods. At the same time, both local and state, but above all international contexts are considered.
Geopolitical schools of the second half of the 20th century
After World War II, the sphere of influence of the USSR expanded substantially. The country's leadership was faced with the need to have forecasts, analytics, geopolitical information about what processes are taking place in the world. Required information on a wide range of issues. Also needed advice on how to respond to international calls.
In addition, the Soviet leadership was still faced with the task of expanding its international influence beyond Europe, much of which after World War II had fallen into the socialist camp.
It was decided to expand and strengthen international influence using all available means: economy, sport, military and political machinery, as well as culture and science.The main concepts in the international struggle of the Soviet Union were the containment of "American hegemony" and parity.
The largest geopolitical schools of the 20th century were American and Soviet. Both of them used the phrase "the world of capitalism" and "the world of socialism" as the main concepts. The borders of the “worlds” remained relatively stable for several decades, although, for example, socialist Yugoslavia, Albania and China came out of the direct control of the leadership of the USSR.
Russia after the collapse of the USSR
Political analytics and geopolitics at the end of the 20th century were forced to change significantly under the pressure of new circumstances. The Soviet Union ceased to exist, the socialist bloc crumbled, social sciences were forced to start looking for new answers and new terms to define what is happening in the world and the writing of new state and supranational structures.
In the nineties in Russia there was a significant degradation in entire sectors of socially important activities, such as science, social welfare, education, industry.The substantial reduction in nuclear strategic forces and the decline of the army did not allow the country to exert its former influence on the international political system. Moreover, Russia itself needed economic assistance.
Russia in the 21st century
International economic analytics and geopolitics of Russia in the 21st century are focused on finding ways to return to Russia positions lost as a result of the collapse of the communist system.
At the beginning of the two thousandth, the country's leadership made active attempts to break the existing consensus that the world had finally become unipolar, with the United States dominating over other countries.
The economic situation of the beginning of the new century allowed the country's leadership to invest significant resources in the reform, reconstruction and development of the army. For the first time in a long time, military exercises began to be held on a regular basis, including the participation of armies of other states, which made it possible to establish friendly and partnership relations with its neighbors.
Among geopolitical professionals, the idea of the need to achieve the elimination of the unipolar system in the world through military rivalry dominates. Geopolitical schools of other countries hold different views.
Germany is a country where geopolitics actively developed at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. In the German-language literature of the beginning of the last century, a stable view of the state was formed as a kind of biological organism aimed at development and growth. In such a paradigm, external expansion became the natural outcome of the development of any state.
Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, the thoughts of German political scientists were aimed at substantiating the claims of the government of the country to continental domination, followed by the world. The same tasks were set by the Anglo-Saxon geopolitics of Great Britain and the USA.
Much of the 20th century passed under the banner of the struggle for colonial possessions between the major world powers. However, after the catastrophe brought by the Second World War, a wave of anti-colonial movements swept through the countries of the Third World, which made significant adjustments to geopolitical theory, as it was forced to begin to take into account the interests of new players - the states that had freed themselves from colonial oppression.
The leading positions that the US occupies in the economy, armaments and science contribute to the formation of a special attitude to the tasks that the state should solve in the international arena.
In American geopolitics and analytics, two points of view dominate. According to one of them, after World War II, an order was formed that would be maintained for a long time, and the task of America is to ensure stability and a predictable flow of capital in the world.
According to another common point of view, the idea of globalization is losing its relevance, as regionalization is becoming increasingly important, which removes large territories from the control of the United States, endangering America itself. The analysis of military materials in geopolitics in our time plays a crucial role, since the influence of military force on other regions is becoming increasingly important in American foreign policy.