Generic community is a form of human society
The concept of ancestral community is quite polysemous. First of all, it is a historical term that implies a blood-related society. In this context, the tribal community is the primary form established during the primitive system. The traditional definition is: the tribal community is a settlement, whose members are related by blood. According to the scientific periodization, the emergence of this category refers to the average period of maturity of a primitive society.
What is the tribal community
Generic community - it was a closed entity, based on joint ownership of the means of production, teamwork and joint division and consumption of the resulting product. Dependence on nature and harsh climatic conditions made people act together. Since they could only survive in a team, such a thing as a genus appeared. In order to survive, people had to act together, work and produce benefits for their society. Absolutely all nations passed this stage.Each tribal community is a large team, united by kinship and economic life. Forest clearing, hunting, and farming required serious collective efforts, since the tools were still too primitive and their efficiency was rather low. Each tribal community maintained relationships with other communities with which they exchanged spouses. After all, members of the tribal community were not allowed to choose their wives within their small society.
Features of the tribal community
- Be sure to team blood relatives.
- Common, indivisible property.
- Joint household and accommodation.
- Slash farming.
Types of tribal communities
There were 2 types of communities - maternal, so-called matriarchy, and fatherly - patriarchy. Matriarchal tribal community - it was an earlier stage in which the family was not composed of a man and a woman. Then a group marriage was common. Children who did not know the father were raised by the mother. Because of this, the name of the clan was given on the maternal line, and the degree of kinship was determined by the kind of mother. Men in tribal communities made household utensils, tools, hunted.Protected their homes from wild animals, attacks from other genera. Women, in turn, cooked food, cared for the elderly and children, looked after the dwelling. The affairs of the tribal community involved senior women with great life experience. A distinctive feature of matriarchy was the honorary position of a woman compared to a man.
The food was shared fairly, since the tribal community is a society of equals. The men got the coarsest part of the meal. But this proportion was significantly higher than that of women. This results from the fact that hunters spent a lot of forces. Women, accordingly, needed less food, because they spent less energy. But the food was better. Children were given a little, but the most delicious and nutritious.
Power in the tribal community
In primitive society, power belonged to the clan as a whole, and not to individuals of the clan. It was determined by the customs and norms of the community. The main principle is survival, preservation and, of course, procreation. The main institution of power was the tribal assembly, where adult members of the community decided all questions of life and the structure of their community. No children were allowed there.He was elected the elder of the family, the commander, chief of affairs of hunting. Community decisions were to be implemented by each community member. The elders served their family, but for this they did not receive any extra food or better clothing. But they treated them with respect and respect. Elders proudly wore eagle feathers in their hair or necklaces of claws and fangs of predators.
Transition to the neighborhood community
Gradually, the nomadic way of life of fishermen, hunters and gatherers is replaced by a sedentary economy of farmers and pastoralists. This leads to the specialization of communities and the strengthening of territorial ties. Tribal community is becoming obsolete, giving way to the neighbor.
The reasons for the transition to the neighborhood community
- The transition from podchechnaya agriculture to arable.
- The study of iron processing techniques.
- Improvement of labor tools, which led to an increase in labor productivity.
- Increasing inequality among citizens, the emergence of nobility.
The clan is transformed into a clan, which consists of separate family communities. The smallest cell of the neighboring community is the home community, whose management is transferred to the family council. The head is usually elected senior man.In a large family, primitive relations have been preserved for a long time, the clan and neighbor community serve as an example of this fact. Large related units within the neighborhood community are no longer an economic necessity. In their place come small families. Members of the neighboring community begin to feel themselves already residents of a particular village.