Forms of schooling - a variety of classifications.
Forms of trainingin the school reflect the external organization of interaction between the teacher and students and are carried out in a certain order and regime.
Advanced pedagogical practice has accumulated a huge arsenal of organizational forms of education. Attempts to classifyforms of educationallow researchers to allocate more than ten classifications for various parameters.
So, the method of obtaining education involves several forms: full-time, part-time, evening, external.
The most extensive is the classification, inbased on which the training system is based. There are individualized and collective training systems. Some of them were popular in their time, others became traditional and are considered the main ones.
Class-lesson system, theoreticallyfounded by J. A. Komensky, is universally recognized throughout the world and leads the organization of school education for several centuries. It assumes a constant composition of students of the same age and level of training, whose training takes place in accordance with the material distributed over the years and lessons in a separate subject. Lessons for school subjects alternate according to the schedule. The advantage of a class-lesson system is a clear structure, economy, the possibility of organizing an educational process in a permanent team of students. Disadvantages of the system are small individualization of education, isolation in a certain organizational space.
Forms of learning were constantly being the object of experiments and studies of teachers-reformers, who sought to improve the effectiveness of the class-lesson system.
At the heart of the Bellancaster system (England) is the idea of mutual training of students.
The Mannheim system, established in Europe in 20years of the twentieth century, was oriented toward differentiation according to the abilities of schoolchildren (classes were formed on the basis of examinations and strong, average, weak achievements of students).
Batavia plan is a system of organization of training, in which two teachers worked with the class, distributing frontal and individual work with students among themselves.
In the future, activeforms of learning. Thus, the Dalton Plan (USA) was aimed at active self-mastering by the students of the school curriculum on the tasks of the teacher, using work in workshops, laboratories.
Brigade-laboratory training in domestic pedagogy in the 20 years of the twentieth century until 1932 became a kind of modification of the Dalton plan.
Ideas of flexible distribution of study time andthe choice of an individual form of education lay in the dream of the Trump plan (50s of the 20th century). This system includes the organization of lectures in large groups of students (100 people, 40% of school time), the organization of work in small groups (10-15 people, 20% of the time), individual work of students in school cabinets (40% of the time).
In high school and vocational schoolslecture-seminar system of education.
Forms of schoolingin domestic didactics are divided intoschool (lesson, optional, association of additional education), extracurricular (homework, excursions, distance learning). By the number of students, frontal, group and individual forms of education are allocated.
It is worth noting the modern form of training,which has developed in recent years. This is distance learning, which is based on computer telecommunications. The learning process takes place independently under the guidance of a tutor (teacher-mentor). The new opportunity for high school students (distance courses in separate subjects), children with disabilities, was appreciated. In the long term, researchers note the possibility of using this form of education for students of rural schools, for schoolchildren who have gaps in knowledge on any subject. Distance education contributes to the implementation of the curriculum in full during epidemics or natural disasters.
Forms of training are constantly evolving in accordance with advanced pedagogical concepts and modern requirements for school education.