Fable is a story that teaches wits
Fables we love to read since childhood. Many of us have stored in our memory images from fables that, in certain situations, pop up in our heads. These tales, small in size but with a deep meaning, teach us to the mind and accompany us through life.
What is a fable?
A fable is a short moral story that is allegorically satirical in nature. In fables, as a rule, the characters are not people, but animals, which are characterized by human personality traits: cunning - fox, stubbornness - crayfish or rams, wisdom - owl, stupidity - monkey. Items can also act as the protagonists of these short stories.
The form of speech of a fable is prose or a poem. In the fables, motifs of social criticism are often present, but often human vices and wrong actions are mocked.
The emergence of satirical stories, fables in Russia
A fable is a story that appeared in Russia as a translation of the works of Aesop at the beginning of the 17th century. The first translator was Gozvinsky Fedor Kasyanovich.It was he who first introduced the definition of fable as a literary genre. It was believed that a fable is a small piece in prose or verse, which is built on the principles of allegory and contains a moral character. Truth manifested itself through a false story.
In the 18th century, Antioch D.K., Trediakovsky V.K., Sumarokov A.P., Chemnitzer I.I. worked in this genre. They carried out translations of fable stories, mainly of Aesop, as well as works of European fabulist: Gellert H., Lessing G., Moore T., Jean de La Fontaine.
Ivan Ivanovich Chemnitzer was the first to start creating his own fable. In 1779, his collection entitled “Fables and NN Tales in Verse” was published. Ivan Dmitriev continued the tradition of publishing his own fables, who tried to form a new, personal approach to literature. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the works of Izmailov A.Ye. However, the work of the great classic Ivan Andreevich Krylov is considered the most significant contribution to the development of the fable genre. Derzhavin, Polotsk, Khvostov, Fonvizin, Poor and many others also turned to this genre at different times.
What is a metaphor
A fable is a work in which authors use metaphors - the kind of pathways in which properties are transferred from one object to another. A metaphor is a hidden comparison in which the basic words are actually omitted, but implied. For example, human negative qualities (stubbornness, cunning, flattery) are transferred to animals or inanimate objects.
In fact, fables are heroic beasts with a human character. They act like a man. Cunning peculiar fox, deceit - a snake. Goose is usually identified with stupidity. Leo is given courage, bravery and courage. The owl is considered wise, and the ram or donkey is stubborn. Each of the characters necessarily possesses any one characteristic feature of a person. The moralized natural science of animals from fables was eventually drawn up in a series of collections known under the general name "Physiologist."
The concept of morality in the fable
A fable is a short tale of instructive nature. We often think that you should not think about what you read and look for secret meaning in words. However, this is fundamentally wrong if we want to learn to understand each other better.It is necessary to learn from the fable, to think it over. The moral of the fable is its short moralizing conclusion. It covers the whole problem, rather than concentrating on a particular episode. Fables are written so that a person not only laughs at its content, but also understands his own miscalculations and at least tries to improve for the better.
The benefits borne by fables
The life problems that are mocked in fables are endless and endless. Most often criticized laziness, lies, stupidity, ignorance, boasting, stubbornness, greed. Each of us can find in the fables of a similar character. All the situations that are described in these small satirical stories are very vital and realistic. Due to the irony, the fable teaches not only to notice certain flaws, but also forces one to attempt to improve oneself. Reading humorous works of this nature is very beneficial effect on the psychological health of the person.
In the fables, among other things, the political structure of the state, the social problems of society and the generally accepted fake values are often ridiculed.
Fable "Crow and Fox" - what is the moral?
Perhaps this is one of the most famous works of Krylov. The author warns his readers - you can’t be overly trusting; Do not blindly believe those who are flattered and praise you without any reason. After all, it is known that by nature the crow does not know how to sing, but she still believed in the laudatory odes of sly chanterelles. What is significant, the author does not condemn the intelligent fox. Rather, he criticizes the stupidity of the bird, saying that you need to believe only in what you see and know for sure.
Fable "Trap" - for children or adults?
In this work, Krylov compares the actions of a young horse and a more experienced one (a good horse). The old horse acts slowly, slowly, thinking through each step in order to lower the cart safely and safely. But the young and too boastful horse considers himself better and smarter and constantly reproaches the old horse. In the end, everything ends sadly.
A fable is a display of historical events. "Wagon" is just such a work. The author identifies the heroes of the fable with the participants in the battle of Austrelitz that occurred in 1805. Mikhail Kutuzov, who was a brilliant commander, quite often stepped back and delayed major battles, knowing and understanding the weakness of his army.However, this situation did not like the emperor Alexander I. Just before the ill-starred battle, he decided to take matters into his own hands and lead the army, which led to the defeat of the Russian-Austrian coalition.