Economic accounting and its types
The economic account is necessary for the enterprise, if itis engaged in the production of any products. The object of his analysis are the processes that occur in production, and their evaluation is carried out in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As material production develops, it becomes necessary to take into account the measure of labor and the measure of consumption. In general, this process is aimed at identifying deviations from the implementation of certain tasks, as well as the search for a way to eliminate them.
As for the main characteristics, the economic accounting is characterized by the following:
- At its carrying out various variants of measuring instruments are used, the choice of which is regulated by the purposes and orientation of the procedure.
- It contains data that characterize the period during which this analysis is carried out.
- Economic accounting helps to analyze the actual state of affairs in the enterprise.
Its main tasks and objectives are:
- Conduction of economic analysis, which concerns a certain subject.
- Evaluation of the appropriateness of decisions and operations carried out.
- Forecasting and development of options for further activities.
- Determination of the degree of risk in a given area.
There are several methods, according to whicheconomic accounting is carried out, and its types are also distinguished on the basis of this classification. Thus, accounting, operational and statistical accounting are distinguished. It is necessary to explain the essence of each of them.
So, operational accounting is a technology,allowing to observe, reflect and control certain economic and technical operations directly during their conduct. This is done in order to carry out operational management. For example, this type of accounting helps to display a variety of production processes, in particular, the employees' exit to work, the registration of transactions conducted during the month, and so on.
Statistical accounting of economic processesis carried out in order to study and control the mass phenomena, as well as to determine the pattern of their development. As the subject here are not only production processes, but also other social phenomena (the level of labor productivity, the average age of employees, and also the degree of their provision with housing). As for the methods used in statistical accounting, they are strictly specific. Among them are summaries, groupings, methods of averages, and so on.
It should be noted that the results of operational and statistical surveys are not allowed to be fixed on special forms, because all production processes are not taken into account when conducting them.
Accounting economic accounting is carried out with the purpose of conducting reliable, continuous and legally justified analysis of operations in production. It is characterized by:
- Regular, complete and consistent reflection of business transactions.
- Mandatory documentary confirmation of all ongoing processes and actions taken.
- Generalization of data in monetary form.
- Use of techniques such as costing, valuation and billing.
If we consider countries with a market economy,then in them accounting economic accounting is divided into financial and management. The first of them consists of a set of rules and procedures that should ensure the preparation and publication of information consisting of the results of the enterprise as a whole and its financial condition.
As for management accounting, it is an internal activity. It is carried out in order to provide managers with information about the enterprise and its structural divisions.