The definition of "symbolism". What is symbolism in art
One of the many areas of art that originated in France and gained momentum at the end of the nineteenth century throughout the world was called “symbolism”. What is, what are the features of this style and how it attracts creative people - try to make out further.
It is a mistake to believe that symbolism as a trend in aesthetics began its existence only at the beginning of the twentieth century. Rather, on the contrary, it is one of the oldest image styles, which has received a decent design only by this time. The substantiation of this statement originates from the origin of the name - “symbolism” - from the word “symbolism” - the use of allegorical expressions, allegorical illustrations and symbols. These categories are found in art from ancient times. Very often they were used for religious purposes,where all canons have their own symbolism and are very dependent on the perception of a particular person, and conveyed in this way the representations of individuals.
By the end of the nineteenth century, symbolism in art acquired its present form, and showed the greatest manifestation in Russia. Thus, artists, poets and musicians expressed their vision of the deepest problems of society, protests. It was impossible to speak directly about this - severe punishment threatened, so it was the transmission of thoughts through allegories and symbols that became the most accessible way to find like-minded people.
Distinctive features of symbolism
The use of symbols in art implies the embodiment and transmission of thoughts, feelings and ideas in the generally accepted human form. This trend develops as an opposition to realism and impressionism, which reached the first level in the art of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Common traits that manifest themselves in all forms of art for symbolism are mystery, allegory, and deep inner meaning. This comes from the very concept of "symbol" (sign) - its meaning is ambiguous,and it can convey absolutely opposite thoughts with its essence, while the image used in the creation of works before symbolism is a single concept.
Ideas of symbolism and its aesthetics
Symbolism in painting, theater, literature and music obeyed the general laws, conveyed a certain idea, since this trend in art cannot be characterized with specific features like other forms. Charles Baudelaire (French poet) insisted that it was in painting that symbolism manifested itself most of all - and this was due to the main points of the canvases - colors, lines, plot. Everything could serve as a subtle hint.
Romanticism gave rise to the aesthetic principles of this trend, and the idealistic theories of the great thinkers of the time — Schopenhauer, Hartmann, Nietzsche — invested a partial share as a result of which symbolism found its present form. What is unusual taken his followers from the philosophers? The works of the philosophers influenced the symbolists' awareness of the fact that beyond the visible world of things there is a real, true world that is only reflected through objects. From their works, as well as from the principles of romanticism, the world of symbolism flowed - the world of dreams and visions.
The symbol became the ideal tool for concealing or, on the contrary, for transmitting the innermost - thoughts, feelings -. In this way, symbolism is converted to the spiritual realm. Thus, the followers of symbolism radically changed not only the individual features of the arts, but also the attitude towards them.
Symbolism in music
According to the majority of followers, symbolism in art received the greatest manifestation in the musical field. Sound reproduction of thoughts is the most allegorical and allows one to experience the spiritual world of the creator. In addition, the listener is able to put their impressions and their own meaning in the musical scale.
A prominent representative of symbolism was the famous composer of the transition period - Scriabin. In his works, the impulses of combining the subtle world of experiences of the human soul and the grand impulses of reality are “read”. The main idea of his work was the divine essence of creativity as the shortest path to simple human happiness.
Painting in the style of symbolism
In painting, the features of symbolism are easily guessed by the feelings depicted in the paintings.So, in these canvases it is almost impossible to detect positive emotions. This is due to the internal requirement of symbolism to convey to the masses thoughts about the imperfection of the surrounding world.
The background of paintings, as a rule, is blurred and sustained in calm, similar-type tones, and the image itself is generalized and very simple. At the same time there are clear contours of small elements. The plot is mysterious, every detail is a certain character that requires study and guesswork. Images in the style of symbolism send the thoughts of the contemplator to other sources, they require a broad outlook and trust in their feelings.
Famous representatives who practiced symbolism in painting became Vasnetsov, Yuon, Klimt, and others.
Representatives of symbolism in the world literature
As already mentioned above, the use of symbolism in its current form received a rebirth in nineteenth-century France. Baudelaire, Verlaine and Mallarme became prominent representatives in literature, who based their works on the “symbolism” style. What is the mysterious they conveyed to readers in an encrypted form?
Charles Baudelaire in his works conveys through signs the duality of life - insanity and genius, love and hate, external and internal impulses. All these correspondences are transmitted in his desire to unite, synthesize all known types of art.
Stefan Mallarme in the guise of symbolism conveys important thoughts and feelings, which, in his opinion, must convey to the reader literature. This was also practiced by the poet Paul Verlaine. In his opinion, music is the pinnacle of all art, and in it, like nowhere else, the presence of symbolism is noticed. Consequently, poetry, if it wants to reach hearts, must be musical. And he managed to pass it perfectly.
Symbolism in the Silver Age literature is presented very vividly and intensely. The followers of this style reproduced reality in prose and poetry as a ceaseless stream of sensations, which was transformed into a single image only in the mind of the reader. Of great importance for determining the holistic picture was the world of sensuality and human sensations. So from the insignificant symbols, signs and hints is collected the true meaning of the works.
The great contribution of symbolism in the literature of the Silver Age received from the Russian poets of the transition period - the end of the nineteenth - the beginning of the twentieth centuries. These are Bely, Blok, Ivanov, as well as many other famous writers. The world of matter is depicted by them as a mask through which the true spiritual world shines through. All described situations, phenomena and forms of life receive a double value and intend to convey the conventionality of the real world.
Transformation of symbolism in time and directions
In modern forms, such as modern, academic and post-impressionism, symbolism acquired its continuation and development. What is and what basics he conveyed to these styles? Modern is widely represented in music and art. The masters of this trend are trying to fill quite a familiar form with spiritual content, to find a certain symbolism in ordinary objects and phenomena, to combine and contrast color and form in the rhythm of composition and drawing. This is the basis of symbolism.
Academism is often found in literary forms of creativity. Here, “eternal” motifs are embodied through the word and convey a combination of banality and deep spiritual experience.In this form, sculptors of art from the beginning of the twentieth century transmitted encrypted messages to the viewer, and reading them required not only knowledge of the history of the creation of this work, but also an understanding of the features of the period of that time, a broad outlook and high instinct.