Crisis is ... Age crises in psychology. Features of the manifestation and consequences of the crisis
A crisis is something that many people have to face. Almost everyone, to be precise. The concept comes from the Greek word krisis, which literally means "turning point" or "decision." Accordingly, a crisis is such a life period during which a person moves to a new level of age development, which is characterized by psychological changes. And this process is accompanied by the destruction of the usual social order.
First, it is worth noting the crisis of the newborn. A period in which there is no mental component, since it implies a transition from intrauterine to real life. Birth is the first trauma that each of us experiences. And she is very strong.So much so that the whole life following the birth passes under the sign of this trauma.
It is very important that the neonatal period is under the supervision of adults. In principle, this is how it happens in a normal society - parents are always with the child, who provide him with a transition to a new type of functioning. The baby is helpless. He does not even have a pre-formed behavioral principle. Because all this is just to arise. And most importantly - a child in the neonatal period is not considered separately from an adult. Since it has no way to interact with the environment.
When does the “exit” from the neonatal crisis occur? Scientists say - when the child begins to interact with parents, and they notice the development of his emotional sphere. As a rule, this is the second month of a baby’s life.
Three years crisis
This is the next stage. The period during which there is a transition from an early age to a preschool one. At this moment, the existing personal mechanisms are radically rebuilt, and the child forms new personality and consciousness traits.Plus, he moves to a new level of interaction with the outside world and people. It is important to note that this period has no clear time limits.
It is interesting to consider the crisis of three years, the Soviet psychologist Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. He identifies the seven brightest "symptoms" in the child's behavior, which indicate that he passes through the aforementioned period.
The first is negativity. The child refuses to do something only because it was offered to him by a specific adult. And he, as a rule, acts exactly the opposite.
The next symptom is stubbornness. The child insists on something only because he cannot refuse his decision on principle. Even if circumstances have changed.
The third thing that is celebrated is obstinacy. That is, the tendency to do everything in defiance. The fourth symptom is self-will. Or, in simple terms, the familiar, proactive “I myself!” Aimed at self-affirmation and self-esteem.
Another symptom is a riot protest. Manifested in regular conflicts with adults. As a rule, due to the fact that the child does not feel respect for him and for his desires.
Depreciation is also taking place. The child ceases to be interested in everything that was interesting to him before. But the last symptom is the most unpleasant. This is despotism. A child gets out of control and demands in adults an instant fulfillment of all his desires and requirements. Looking at all this, the question arises: for whom the crisis of three years is harder - for a child or for parents?
After all of the above, a crisis of seven years follows. We all went through it. The causes of the crisis lie in the psychological changes of personality. The child develops an inner position, a kind of "core" and his own "I" begin to emerge. In the same period, he enters the school, falling into a completely different environment. Until that moment he was playing. Now he will have to learn. For many children, this is the first manifestation of labor.
There are other related causes of the crisis. Some children, having entered the school, begin to be afraid of doing the work assigned to them, feeling for the first time responsibility for the result. They realize themselves now and as a schoolboy, comrade. It is important for them to become full members of the new society - and this is stressful.The crisis period of seven years is important, because it is at this time that children form an attitude towards people, towards themselves and towards society. As a rule, the acquired core, the so-called “trunk” remains for a lifetime. Yes, he later, during his life, overgrown with "branches" and "leaves", but the foundation is laid in childhood.
This is the very period that most of us clearly remember. As he proceeds at a fully conscious age. After 12-13 years, to be precise. It is believed that this is the period during which the child moves from childhood to adulthood. It can last a long time. At this point, adolescents develop very dynamically - both physically and mentally. They form needs that cannot be satisfied immediately, since they themselves have not yet reached social maturity.
The adolescent crisis is a period accompanied by excessive parental care and control. And bans, quarrels, arising from attempts to circumvent them and much more. All this prevents a teenager from knowing himself and revealing the peculiarities inherent only to him - as an individual person.
On the specifics and characteristics of adolescence
This stage is one of the most difficult in human life. In adolescent, in addition to new needs, there are special thoughts, thoughts, important issues and problems. And for the majority, as a rule, it is difficult to survive this period, since all of the above do not seem important to parents. “What problems can a child have? Too small yet, did not live! ”- the majority of adults shrugs it off. And very vain.
Then adults are surprised - why did the relationship with their child spoil? Because they were indifferent. They did not reckon with his opinion, they continued to perceive him as a baby. And the consequences of the crisis, by the way, can be very deplorable. In this case, the notorious obstinacy may also appear. If parents are forbidden to go to a party, then what will a teenager do? Run through the window! And it is not known what the consequences of the party will be - maybe the whole subsequent life will have to pay for them. Therefore, it is very important to reckon with a teenager, to build relationships with him, as with an adult. And be able to make compromises. So do adequate adults.
This period should also be noted with attention when talking about age crises. In psychology, youth is also considered such. Why? Because this is the time when a person starts making really important decisions. He must decide on the future profession, social position, worldview, build life plans. It used to be that youth is 22-23 years old. But now - 17-18, and even earlier, because many parents believe that the sooner their child graduates from school, the better.
But, nevertheless, in youth it is very important to make the right choice. And if we talk about which age crises in psychology are the most dynamic, then youth will be on the same level as adolescence. During this period, much happens, in addition to the choice of profession. Army service, for example, or even the first marriage, often accompanied by the spontaneous birth of a child. In their youth, many make mistakes because of social immaturity. And in our time, as practice shows, this period is not accompanied by what was previously considered a characteristic feature of youth. And this is the overcoming by a person of dependence on adults (parents). In particular, financial.
The period of "middle"
Now you can talk about the so-called "thirty-year" crisis. This psychology is called the period of early adulthood. People understand that the peak of their youth is over. Many are summing up some results, starting to look soberly into the future. Most people begin to feel the need for calm stability. There is a desire to find the meaning of life.
Some have a sense of wasting lost time. Awareness comes - I live in this world for 30 years! And what have I achieved? Looking back, many people understand - not so much. Finishes comparing himself with successful peers or even younger people. It is even worse if they are close or familiar. So it is not far to depression. And for many women, moreover, all of the above is accompanied by the realization that they are no longer so young, fresh and beautiful. Here it is - a typical thirty-year crisis. This psychology is one of the most "sad" periods.
Middle age crisis
This is, perhaps, the period about which everyone has heard. It is a long emotional stage, which is directly related to the overestimation of life experience.During this period, the person realizes that the onset of old age is not far off. She is close, not like in her youth - "sometime in the distant future." The moment in which a person realizes that he will never be young - this is a midlife crisis.
Symptoms are numerous. The notorious depression, self-pity, a feeling of emptiness, the feeling that life is unfair. The person refuses to recognize the success he has achieved, despite the fact that they are positively evaluated by other people. He loses interest in many aspects of life - even those that were important to him before. The circle of reference persons is changing - the opinion of random people is valued more than what their relatives / colleagues / friends say. There may even be a change in values. And the behavior and style becomes different. Man tries to create the appearance of the transfiguration of life by changing some external manifestations.
So, the features of the manifestation of a midlife crisis are clear. Now - a few words about the consequences. In the case of this period, they can be heavy. Because the degree of seriousness of mistakes made is directly proportional to a person’s age.
A deep “search of oneself” is possible, a sudden dismissal from a good job, in which a person has been working for more than one year, a desire to move somewhere or radically change his occupation. But the most serious consequence is a ruined family. Some people leave their “second half”, with which more than a dozen years have been lived, due to faded feelings. Others do not leave the family, but simply seek “entertainment” on the side, which is no better. Women are looking for lovers to make sure they are still attractive. Men find mistresses for the same reason.
Pension crisis is the last in our life. Accounted for, usually 60-70 years. This is also not an easy period. Most pensioners worked all their lives, and, having gone on a well-deserved vacation, they simply do not know what to do. Health has not improved with age, friends are either far away, or have left this world altogether. The children grew up, left their native nest and have long lived their lives. Man understands - his time is coming to an end. He feels unnecessary and lost. And in this case, it is very important to find the strength to continue to enjoy life, to find a new meaning, passion and like-minded people.In the age of modern technology, this is more than possible.
The problem of age crises is one. And it lies in the fact that they accompany us throughout life. Only for some people are these only periods, and for others, there are really crises in the traditional sense that poison the existence. Well, the most important thing is to accept the fact that without change life is impossible. This awareness will help not only to prepare for them, but also to extract from them the benefit and the lesson.