Counterparty is ... Counterparties of an enterprise
The counterparty is an integral part of any trade or manufacturing enterprise. He is guided by his principles, methods, his work is displayed in the financial statements. The counterparties of an enterprise are subjects for which there must be separate documents in which all, even the smallest financial details, are recorded. But let's get everything in order.
To begin, let's define who this is - the counterparty. This, in simple terms, is a designation for a person that opposes the other side of a certain process within the framework of established civil law relations. Regarding the origin of this word there is no consensus. The most popular version says that the counterparty is a word that came from German, which literally means “against the acting”. It appeared about the first half of the eighteenth century.Another version says that the counterparty is a word whose roots are in French. She is of the opinion that the so-called partners in card games. But who, by today's standards, is this counterparty from a legal point of view? This is a legal or natural person that acts as a party to an ongoing transaction. So you can call partners that enter into a specific contract. As counterparties can be a variety of people who are associated with the company different relationships. These include service providers, products, contractors, employees, and customers. That is, all those with whom the company was in a business relationship (or they were in the process of processing) and entered into business contracts. Such an approach provides for mutual equality and the exclusion of subordination.
How is the contract?
For this, one party is obliged to make an offer, and the second is to accept it. Due to this peculiarity of the contract conclusion process, any transaction is carried out in two stages. The first is a written offer to conclude a contract. It is called the "offer".The second is called acceptance, the transition to this stage is possible only after the previous one. After both of them have been successfully completed, it is considered that the transaction was concluded.
Registration in accounting
So, the company concluded a contract with the counterparty. After that, it enters into a contractual relationship, and here the field of work of accountants begins. Information about each partner of the company is entered into a single database. So, if the 1C program is used, then it is stored in a special directory where the full name of the partner, his status, country of registration, address, telephone number and other information is indicated. Separately prescribed bank details that are used in the paperwork. It should be noted that settlements with counterparties can be divided into several categories, each of which will have its own characteristics. So, if we talk about suppliers, then it is possible to transfer material resources on credit (or on other conditions). Especially for this accounting, letters of credit, checks, payment orders, promissory notes and other necessary documents are drawn up.
Let's look at how the company's counterparties act. These are problem-free subjects of economic activity that pay for services and goods without delay. In such cases, a payment order is used. In cases where suppliers have problems, then the calculation can be carried out on the collection. If the company makes settlements with the contractor, the latter simply receives a predetermined amount. Therefore, in such cases, the calculations are in the statements that are closed after the funds were paid. A similar analogy can be drawn regarding staff. So, the calculation with them is also carried out according to the statements, which indicate who received the advance payment, what was its size, who was given a premium or a fine was written out. For the convenience of settlements with customers, accountants use synthetic accounts. They display a summary of information about economic resources, expressed in monetary amounts. In addition, analytical accounts are also used. Their feature is that the information available here is presented not only in monetary amounts, but also have a natural expression (pieces, tons, liters, etc.).
Interaction with contractors is important for any company, even which has a fully closed production and sales cycle. Do not believe it? Want an example? Well, as such, you can bring the bank-counterparty. This is a financial institution in which the current account of any enterprise is located, without which it cannot even complete the registration procedure.
What are contractors for?
Let's consider the answer to this question from an economic point of view. When a market analysis is carried out, identifying potential buyers, along with existing ones, allows an enterprise to determine its position and develop realistic fees for purchasing raw materials / goods / services and selling products for a future period. In addition, it allows you to roughly calculate the cash flow. For the convenience of interaction, it is possible to differentiate customers according to the territorial principle, market segment, distribution channel and other things. The number of categories depends on the approach to the selection and formation of groups. For different clients in such cases, special programs can be additionally created taking into account problems and needs.
In general, there are quite a few divisions of such partners. The most common contractor is the contract. This means that the company and its partner operate within the framework of a specific contract, by which everything is determined. Although relations can be regulated by external forces. Take, for example, the law on consumer protection. If a person is not satisfied with, say, purchased shoes, he can return it. In general, the counterparties of the enterprise - this is a phrase that is used, as a rule, only in relation to legal entities. But do not forget that every customer also has this status and, accordingly, is legally protected.