Consciousness in psychology: features, structure, functions
Consciousness is the main mental integrative process that combines attention, memory, different meanings, human experience, his emotions, perceptions and other mental manifestations. Consciousness in psychology is one of the most important categories, which in a generalized form reflects the objective properties of the surrounding world, which allows a person to form an internal model of the external world and transform the surrounding reality.
Structure of consciousness
Features are categorical and conceptual, awareness of connections, reflection of interconnections, connection with public consciousness, self-awareness. Consciousness in psychology is divided into two layers. Thus, the existential is distinguished, including sensual images and experience of actions, and reflective (for understanding reality), including meanings and meanings. This structure of consciousness in psychology reflects its complexity and focus on solving various problems.At the existential level, the choice is made in favor of resolving difficult life situations, it helps to actualize the image and motor program that is currently needed, which is caused by the realities of the surrounding world. At the reflective level of consciousness, ideas, concepts, scientific and everyday knowledge correlate with meaning. Meaning is a subjective understanding and attitude towards a situation or information. If difficulties arise in understanding the meanings, misunderstanding is born. The origins of the reflective layer originate in the being.
Consciousness in psychology has the following functions: reflective, regulatory and evaluative, generative (creative and creative) and reflexive. The latter is the main one, which characterizes the essence of the concept under consideration. Objects of reflection can be: a reflection of the world, reflections on it, ways of regulating a person’s own behavior, as well as the very processes of reflection, personal consciousness.
Consciousness in psychology has a number of fundamental properties: categorical (reflects the world through the prism of knowledge and positions on a universal scale), awareness of the goals of activity,a reflection of the interrelations that are essential in a given situation, the conditionality of a person’s consciousness by social forms of consciousness, a conceptual model of one’s personality and building contact with reality on this basis.
There are two main forms that consciousness has. In psychology, each of them is described according to a strict scheme, in which one can clearly trace the structure and content of each. This is a public (manifested during panic, competition, etc.) and individual (peculiar to one person and is unique) consciousness.
In psychology, it is understood and interpreted ambiguously. There are various approaches to this issue. V. Bekhterev believes that it precedes consciousness, S. Rubinstein - that it is a stage in the development of consciousness, I. Sechenov - that develops simultaneously with consciousness. Self-consciousness (the image of one's “I”) does not appear in a person immediately, it develops gradually under the influence of many social influences, throughout life. It includes 4 components: the consciousness of the “I” as an active principle of activity, the ability to distinguish oneself from others, to see one's individual mental properties, to have self-esteem, which is formed on the basis of the experience of communication and activity.