Complex Object in English. The Complex Object Rule
In the process of learning English manyface certain difficulties. This is due to the fact that in Russian there are often no grammatical phenomena inherent in a foreign language. In the English example: indefinite article, auxiliary verbs, Complex Object, rule of one negation in the sentence, 26 categories of times, passive voice, complex subject, etc.
A complex addition. The formula of education and use
This grammatical phenomenon is aA construction consisting of a noun in the general case (or a pronoun in the object case) and an indefinite form of the verb. In Russian, this linguistic complex is translated as a subordinate clause, in which a noun is a subject, and an infinitive is a predicate:
- My mother would like to enter the Institute. "My mother would like me to go to college."
This construction has no analogues in Russianlanguage. And yet, many Russian schoolchildren easily master this grammatical phenomenon. And the design is actually convenient and compact in terms of language form.
Complex Object. Verbs
A complex addition in English is used with such groups of verbs.
- Verbs expressing desire and need - to want, to wish, to desire, to like. For example:
- My wife wishes me to get a promotion. "My wife wants me to be promoted."
- My mum desires us to go to the sea as quickly as possible. "My mother really wants us to go to the sea together as soon as possible."
- Verbs expressing awareness, knowledge - to think, to know, to report. For example:
- He thought me to have given back this thing. - He thought I had returned this thing.
- Mike knows me to be a lazy bone. "Mike knows I'm a bummer."
- Verbs expressing expectation - to believe, to expect, to suppose. For example:
- I expected her to have had the better results. "I expected that she would have better results."
- John always believes his wife to be the fairest woman in the world. "John always believed that his wife was the most honest woman in the world.
- Do you have her to have solved the problems? "Do you think she solved all the problems?"
- Verbs expressing an order, coercion - to order. For example:
- The doctor ordered me to take a pill twice a day. "The doctor ordered me to take the pill twice a day."
Examples of using a structure without a particle to
If you use the phenomenon The Complex Objectwith verbs of perception (to see - to look, to hear, to notice, to watch - to observe - to explore)
- I see her go out. "I saw her leave the house."
I saw her go out. I saw her leave the house.
In the last example, the verb is used in the formgerund, which gives the proposal a different meaning. If in the first case a person observed a one-step action (left the house), in the second example, a certain process is expressed, expressed with the help of the verb with the ending -ing.
For a better understanding, it's best to compare the following pairs of examples:
- I noticed her enter the room. "I noticed how she entered the room.
I noticed her in the room. - I noticed how she went into the room.
- He heard Fred go upstairs. He heard Fred climb the stairs.
He heard Fred going upstairs. He heard Fred climb the stairs.
Thus, with the aid of a complex complement, one-stage action and a certain process can be expressed. Often when translated into Russian, this connection is barely perceptible.
If the verbs to see, to hear are used inmeaning "to understand", then in this case there is no need to apply Complex Object. The rule of using a complex complement in this case does not work. An example needs to be translated using a clause.
- I saw that she had a desire to go away. - I realized that she wants to leave.
Using a complex complement with verbs to cause, to make, to let
It is also necessary to remember a number of verbs denoting prohibition or permission(to let - to allow, to make - to have, to cause, to cause, to) with which the Complex Object is used without a particle to:
- In my childhood my mum never let me walk until I did my homework. "As a child, my mother never allowed me to go for a walk until I did my homework.
- Do not make me do these terrible things! "Do not make me do these terrible things!"
- You cause her think as you do! "You're imposing your opinion on her!" (You make her think like you do).
Complex addition and time category
In the construction of the Complex Object, the infinitive can be used in various temporal forms, for example:
- Active voice. When I was little, my mum never let me go alone. - When I was young, my mother did not let me alone.
- Passive voice. My father would take me to be in the region football team. - My dad wants me to be taken to the regional football team. I have never known. "I've never seen my sister punished."
- Perfect forms. Only my friend knew me to have flunked. "Only my friend knew that I failed the exam."
- Continuous forms. Ann watched the old lady walking around the house. Anne watched the old woman walk around the house. I heard Alice speaking in a whisper. "I heard Alice talking to someone in a whisper.
Perfect forms of complex additions: when to use?
The Perfect band is one of the biggestdifficulties for Russian students. The entangled system "present + past = completed" does not at all benefit those who study English: for some it is so difficult and incomprehensible that it is easier for them to abandon their studies than to advance into the deaf jams of grammar. And if we are still talking about a complex of perfect times and complex additions, do not postpone the study of this phenomenon in the long box. In fact, everything is very simple. In sentences of this type, the perfect represents the action that took place before the event in the main sentence, for example:
- Alice expected me to have found a job. "Alice expected me to find a job."
In the translation of this sentence is taken into account(the action that happened before the main one), expressed by the formula: to have + Ved / 3 (the verb with the ending -ed if it belongs to the group of regular verbs, or in 3 forms if it is from the category of incorrect).
Special cases of using a complex complement
This design expresses an action performed at the request of another person.
- Bill wants to have his hair cut. "Bill wants to have his hair cut." (In other words, at his request, this procedure will be performed by a hairdresser.)
- Nick is going to have his car repaired. - Nick is going to fix the car. (That is, they will repair it in the service station.)
- Nina has her grandmother taken care of while she works. - Nina is nursed for her grandmother while she is working.
- We want us to clean the furniture, because it's completely rubbed off.
- I had my sweater knitted yesterday. "I tied my sweater yesterday." (That is, it was made at the request of the girl herself.)
- Mary wanted to have her dress made of wool. "Mary wants her dress made of wool."
A complex addition. Exercises aimed at training a skill
To develop the skill of competent use of the Complex Object, the exercises listed below are performed after studying the previous examples.
- Translate into Russian.
I have never heard him speak French.
She wants him to marry her.
Did you expect me to have gone?
Marry had her baby.
I knew her to have graduated from the most prestigious University of our region.
- Open the brackets using the Complex Object grammar rule.
Everybody is considered (he, die).
Milly has never desired (her daughter, become) an actress.
She watched (he, water) the flowers.
- Translate into English.
Everybody heard how she fought with her husband.
Mike thought I was home.
Mom often makes me do my homework.
Did you expect him to leave her?
The doctor does not allow me to break the bed rest.
To form the skill of using the Complex Object proposals and the above examples must be carefully worked out.
In English there is one moreA construction similar to Complex Supplement. A syntactic phenomenon is a complex of the subject, expressed by a noun or pronoun, and an infinitive.
- This old man was said to be seriously ill. - They say that this old man is seriously ill.
As can be seen from the example, the noun is connected with the infinitive by an additional link in the form of a verb in the passive voice. This part of the syntax can be expressed thus:
- to be supposed to - assume that;
- to be heard to - hear that;
- to be believed to - believe that;
- to be known to - it is known that;
- to be announced to - announce that;
- to be expected - expect that.
Note: the verb-bundle to be changes according to the time category of the sentence and the number of the noun.
- He is known as a world-famous dancer. - It is known that he is a famous dancer all over the world.
- Ann was believed to pass English exams. - It was believed that Anna will pass the exam in English.
- The President is expected to make some political changes. - They expect the president to make some changes in politics.
- The Apocalypses were sent to Maya Calendar. - Assumed that the end of the world will come in 2012 in accordance with the Mayan calendar.
- Mary is heard to get married. "We heard that Mary is getting married."
Complex Subject and time forms
Complex Complex can use any of the infinitive forms, including active or passive voice, perfect forms or long-acting forms.
- The dog is said to be found in the forest. - They said that they found the dog in the forest.
- They announced that the guys won a sports competition.
- She was supposed to have left the country. - It was assumed that she left the country.
- The book was known to have been published several times. - It is known that the book was reprinted several times.
Complex subject in the form of active collateral
In addition to the above constructions used in Passive Voice, Complex Subject can be used with the verbs to seem, to appear, to turn out, to happen in the form of Active Voice:
- This man seems to be a stealer. "It seems that this man is a thief."
- Ann did not seem to have realized anything. - It seemed that Mary did not understand anything.
- Did he happen to meet you? "Has he met you before, by any chance?"
- This pompous woman appeared to be very conversable. - It turned out that this pretentious woman is very sociable.
- John appeared to have left for Moscow the day before. - It turned out that John went to Moscow yesterday.
- The test turned out to be difficult for each person of my group. - It turned out that the control was difficult for each of my group.
To fully master the rules of using Complex Subject, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the constructions to be sure to and to be likely to.
- Dad is sure to repair the bike. "Dad will fix the bicycle."
- Ann is likely to miss the train. "Anya will probably miss the train."
How to learn Complex Subject
Just as in the case of the Complex Object, the exercises for practicing the false subject are designed in a sequence from training to productive (ie, translation).
- Translate from English into Russian:
Do not try to argue with him: he supposed to know everything.
The book is considered to have been lost. Fortunately, I found it.
Do not criticize my appearance! I'm believed to become a model!
- Arrange the sentence and translate into Russian (put the words in the sentence in the correct order and translate).
The girl, won, considered, is, in, competition, the.
Sure, Dad, to repair, is the bike.
You, did, he, to, happen, meet?
- Translate from Russian into English (Translate from Russian into English).
It seemed that Mary was in love.
It became known that Bart had disappeared last night.
Mom sure will help you with the lessons.
Expect that the baby will be born in the winter.
He counts on what I will concede.
You have a sloppy hairstyle. You need a haircut.
Complex Object - a feature of speaking
Starting to learn the language in order to use itfor everyday communication, many believe that knowledge of grammatical fundamentals is completely irrelevant. But the possession of lexical units is not yet the ability to speak. Rather, such a person performs the function of a "walking vocabulary", at the right moment finding a translation of the lexeme. Communication in English is the ability to communicate your thoughts together and express them in a foreign language. And just grammar is the very link that allows you to correctly and logically express your ideas. This applies to both small footnotes and whole grammar systems. In this case, the need to study such phenomena as a complex addition and subject, suggests itself. These grammatical forms are used both in newspaper periodicals, in literary publications, and in colloquial speech. In particular, this applies to the use of the Complex Object in English. The conciseness and brevity of its form makes it possible to express the thought most precisely and clearly for the recipient (the one who listens to the speaker). Complex Object is actively used in the texts of foreign songs, films, programs, etc.
Complex subject and passive voice - the same phenomenon?
Those who are more or less familiar with grammarEnglish, were able to grasp the similarity of these two designs. Indeed, for the formation of the form of a complex subject, an excellent knowledge of the algorithm of formation of liabilities is necessary. Passive Voice is a grammatical phenomenon, by means of which the influence on a subject in a sentence is indicated, for example:
- The house is fired. "The house is in a fire."
As can be seen from this sentence, a dwellingexposed to fire. This is the passive voice. In this grammatical phenomenon as a subject can act and animate nouns, for example:
- The girl is punished. - We punished the girl.
The form of the passive pledge coincides with the "frame" of the complex subject:
- The girl is said to quit the country. - They say that the girl left the country.
Attention!! Passive pledge and a complex subject coincide only in external form! Translation of these designs will be different!
Then why is this comparison necessary? This is necessary for Complex Subject to become actively involved in speech. Knowing the basics of formation of liabilities, you can easily create forms of a complex subject in oral speech, without resorting to the help of a pen and a piece of paper.
Thus, Complex Subject, Complex Object -these are language phenomena that are not inherent in the Russian language. It seems that a lot of nuances and alien design complicate the process of mastering the rule. In fact, there is nothing complicated in this. The main thing is to work out the primary skills by doing the training exercises, and then proceed to the direct use of these complexes in the speech.