Basic concepts and categories of ethics
Morality is morality in its historical form. The principle of morality is the striving for its highest forms, which remain basic and unchanging in time values. Moral is always addressed to a free personality, which is capable of perceiving the law not as an external coercion, but as an internal human need. Philosophy considers ethical teachings as the foundation for the system of views on society. It was from these foundations that fundamental research and schools in sociology and philosophy began.
There is a science about the forms of morality and ethics, which is called ethics. The subject of her study is morality in its historical forms. The system of categories of ethics limits the subject area of this sphere of knowledge.
As a science, a special discipline, ethics goes back to the ancient Greek thinker Aristotle.His works on ethics became the fundamental system of knowledge and determined the subject of this science. Ethics is the science of morality.On the basis of the term “ethos”, which means habitual habitat, and later acquired the meaning of “habit”, “character”, “custom”, the ancient Greek thinker identified that particular slice of human reality that constitutes the subject area of science.
By analogy with Cicero, with a direct reference to Aristotle, the word "moral" was formed, and from it the noun "moral", which became equivalent to the term "ethics". Thus formed the basic concepts and categories of ethics. They became basic in the development of this area of humanitarian knowledge.
Thus, the prerequisites of the system of scientific knowledge of the principles of morality and the basic concepts of morality and ethics. Ethical categories are not limited to these two terms. To say that there is a scientific field of knowledge is possible only in the case when there is a subject and a system of categories that limits the scope of scientific knowledge from related fields of science. Ethics as a science has its subject and research tools - a system of categories. The main categories of ethics:
- Morality and morality.
- Good and evil.
- Meaning of life.
The system of categories of ethics limits the scope of scientific research from related areas of the humanitarian cycle. The ethical teachings of leading thinkers in the history of human thought and modernity are the basis for the formation of approaches in philosophical schools and directions. It is thanks to the ethical views of philosophers that famous teachings were formed.
Morality and morality
Morality is a historical form of morality. The moral commandments are timeless categories. They are known as principles of moral life. The Christian commandments “do not kill,” “do not commit adultery,” “do not steal,” “do not be angry,” “envy” are nothing more than forms of moral behavior imprinted in religion.
The well-known statement “about times, about morals!” Is evidence of the variability of historical forms of morality. That is why there is a problem in the relationship of the generations of "fathers and children", the conflict of different forms of moral behavior.
For example, in the Soviet era, any form of speculation was considered to be completely immoral - making a profit by reselling goods. People were subject to criminal prosecution for the facts of engaging in activities that are currently legitimized by the law “On Entrepreneurship”.
For the Middle Ages, the highest degree of immorality was an attempt to understand the nature of things in the natural sciences. History has preserved a sad picture of the Middle Ages as a symbol of "obscurantism". Any form of abandoning blind faith was persecuted and strictly forbidden.
Morality is a form of behavior adopted by a society in a certain historical period and recognized as the norm for this community. In case of refusal to accept norms, an individual is subject to alienation, censure by society in various forms.
Thus, that which in certain temporal conditions acts as evil can turn into good in another temporal paradigm. Evil and good are the basic moral categories of ethics.
good and evil
The categories “good” and “good”, as a rule, endow with identical content. However, this does not correspond to their social nature.Benefit - sociological characteristic. Good is ethical. The good acts as such in that measure in which satisfies human needs. Good carries a purely ethical content.
Categories of ethics good and evil determine the degree of morality in the behavior of people and society. Therefore, it makes sense to consider them in indissoluble unity with the historical continuum.Briefly limit these categories by the level of compliance with the ideals of society. Or inconsistencies (evil) to them. Good has a creative beginning, evil brings a sense of destruction.
Practical content is endowed with categories of professional ethics that reflect the values of craft cultures and norms.
The Code of Ethics, laid down as a principle for carrying out professional activities, is associated with areas that directly affect the interests and values of specific people. First of all, these include humanitarian areas of professional activity:
The ethical code of the doctor has a prescription since the days of Roman law: do no harm! The Hippocratic Oath contains a list of sacred commandments that a member of the professional community must observe.
It is difficult to talk about a more humane professional field than medicine. Because it protects the most important human right - the right to life. Medical ethics contains principles of humane treatment of a person; it touches on many problems, such as medical secrecy, treatment of hopelessly ill people, responsibility and duty.Serving people in this area requires representatives of impeccable adherence to moral principles.
The same principle underlies the ethical codes of lawyers, educators.Categories of pedagogical ethics define normsbehavior in relation toto pupils in such a way that not only words, but also deeds and actions are a role model.
Children and adolescents are particularly sensitive to injustice, to the violation of their freedoms and rights. But they still can not fully defend their interests, so it is especially important to be able not to violate their faith in the justice of society.
Justice, respect for the individual, the principle of observance of morality are not just categories of pedagogical ethics, but the regulating principle of behavior of people who are involved in the upbringing of the younger generation.
Voluntary submission to the principles of corporate ethics is an element of the management of many organizations and enterprises. The ability to negotiate and abide by the principles of ethical behavior is a distinctive feature of the human community.
Justice and Equality
Under the slogan of equality and justice, protests of the population have always been accomplished .... If we recall the story, then all the revolutions were the result of the violation of these norms of society.This suggests that such categories of ethics as justice and equality are the principle of organization of a non-conflict society.
Justice requires a person and society to uphold morality due to a social contract - law, constitution, law, morality and ethics. Therefore, it is important to understand that the categories of ethics in question are not empty words. They have a level of value that guarantees a civilized way of development of society.
Equality has always meant the right of every person to equal opportunities for self-realization in society. Achieving the principle of equality is possible only hypothetically. Since the difference in the forms of existence of people, societies, states, social groups is so great that a long way is still needed to rise to the level of equal opportunities for people in this world.
Duty, dignity, honor
These categories of ethics are directly enshrined in the constitutional norms of the most significant state document.
Debt is the direct responsibility of a person to fulfill obligations to society and people. Duty to parents and children, duty to the Motherland for the performance of military duties - we agree,that each person, by virtue of his moral education, should perceive these rules of behavior not as external norms, but as principles of moral behavior. However, this is not always the case, and in case of violation of these norms, sanctions are imposed on the violator.
Dignity - a measure of self-esteem of its own importance in society and it is protected constitutionally. This is the price for contributing to community development. The right of every person to recognize its significance is an important rule of a just society.
Honor - the term is very capacious in its content. The scope of a concept far exceeds that which encompasses the totality of individual qualities and capabilities of an individual. Often in it lies belonging to the generalimportant social institutions and communities. The honor of the officer, uniform - in these terms is the personal responsibility of a person for the right to belong to a certain system of universal human values. Dignity, honor, duty are at the same time the categories of professional ethics of those spheres of human activity that have the purpose to protect the life, health and safety of people.
Meaning of life and love
Concepts that contain the highest moral values of human life are significant for each person. These are guidelines for positive and meaningful activity for the benefit of both the individual and other people.
The meaning of life, following the logic of the natural process, is the extension of the species. As an ethical category, this is a reflexive process of awareness by a person of the purpose of his existence, of his mission on earth.Is it possible to live without a goal? Naturally, as a biological being, man is predetermined in his purpose. Ethics do not explore this. Biological individuals are the subject of study of natural sciences.
The highest virtue since antiquity proclaimed service to the people. This is the purpose, the moral principle of man. Understanding your life is a certain level of intellectual development of a person. It has been observed that scientists who have completely subordinated their life to the service of humanity constitute the most numerous layer of long-livers. This is explained very simply. Serving humanity so much fills the life of an individual with meaning that the very form of life limitation in time obeys this highest goal and prolongs the term of a person's stay in this world.
Love is a great value.The famous aphorism says that only a lover has the right to be called a man. This is the moral and aesthetic tension of a person, which cannot be compared in terms of emotionality with any of the senses.
This concept has a purely moral basis. Curiously, it is difficult to find its analogues in foreign languages. More often it makes sense to "self-awareness". The origins of the term "conscience" lie in the Christian doctrine, according to which this quality is a gift of God, the guide of the righteous path for man.
This term is included in the concepts and categories of ethics and is inextricably linked with the understanding of the content of such moral tenets as duty, honor, human responsibility. A harmonious personality is a person with a clear conscience when he realizes the righteousness of his life. Conscience is spiritual freedom and the right to choose based on moral duty.
Morality of modern society and morality
As mentioned earlier, morality and ethics are one in essence, but differ in the historical form of manifestation.It is often said that modern society is immoral.This statement is valid for any historical form of human development. The ideal - a moral and harmonious society - remains the goal of development. It is unattainable by definition. Since life is always a development limited by time and space to achieve an ideal.
Violation of moral norms can lead to the self-destruction of society as a historical form. On the other hand, there is a positive trend based on the principle of self-preservation. Humanity has a strong enough rationality potential in order to protect itself from these extreme forms of self-destruction.
The main categories of ethics are the subject of scientific research. But their theoretical analysis is the basis for the formation of practical views on the moral forms of human behavior, society and the state.