Analysis for flora - what is it? Decoding, rate, deviations
Sexually transmitted diseases can cause severe complications. Early detection of infections helps to avoid negative consequences. One of the most effective modern diagnostic methods is the analysis of flora. What it is? This study allows to identify all existing urogenital infections at the same time.
What pathogenic microorganisms determines? Method Description
Until recently, practitioners were worried about the lack of an approved algorithm for detecting urogenital infections in females, which was also complicated by the low information content of existing diagnostic methods. The result of many years of development of scientists was the analysis of flora. What this research is, which eliminates the pressing problems, the doctors understood immediately and instantly began to apply it in practice. It is carried out using the polymerase chain reaction method.
The following microorganisms can be detected using the flora analysis:
There are about 200 microorganisms that can be found in a woman’s vagina. But not all of them are pathogenic. Some of them form a healthy microflora and must be present in the body. In addition, there are conditionally pathogenic microorganisms that can provoke the development of a disease only under the influence of certain trigger factors. Thus, it is important to know that florocenosis is such a study, the results of which can be both qualitative and quantitative. This is due to the fact that for accurate diagnosis it is necessary to assess the concentration of microorganisms.
The analysis can be advanced or complex. When assigning the choice of its type depends on the evidence. Complex florotsenoz implies the identification of 4 major pathogens. These include pathogens of gonorrhea, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis and trichomoniasis. They are combined into one group, since they should never be present in the body of a healthy woman. If they are found, it is necessary to undergo treatment.Advanced florotsenoz allows you to identify all urogenital infections and disorders of the microflora. The accuracy of the study is 99%.
It is important to understand that florotsenoz - this is a study, the adequacy of the purpose of which is determined only by a doctor.
In any case, a specialist should be consulted when the following symptoms appear:
- change in color, odor, amount or consistency of vaginal discharge;
- frequent pain in the lower abdomen;
- constant discomfort during sexual intercourse;
- burning or pain when urinating;
- itching, rash, or redness in the genital area.
In addition to these signs, indications for the analysis of flora are:
- pregnancy planning;
- surgical manipulation of the pelvic organs (preoperative study);
- diseases of the genitourinary system of both acute and chronic nature.
The list of indications can be expanded in the course of an individual conversation with a doctor.
The biomaterial for the study is a discharge from the urethra, cervix, vaginal walls.
Before the analysis, you do not need to perform any special measures; it is enough to follow the standard recommendations:
- 2-3 days to exclude sex.
- For 5 days it is necessary to cancel the introduction into the vagina of candles, pills, contraceptives and other drugs. Antibiotics should be canceled for a month. If this is not possible for health reasons, it is necessary to inform the attending physician.
- For 1-2 days it is forbidden to carry out hygiene of the genital organs with the use of antibacterial cosmetics.
- Within 5 days before the delivery of the biomaterial it is impossible to douche.
- It is not recommended to empty the bladder for 3 hours before the examination.
In addition, the sampling of the biomaterial is not carried out during menstruation. It is also advisable to postpone a visit to the doctor for several days, if the patient had a colposcopy on the eve of taking samples.
How is it done?
The algorithm for the analysis of flora is the following:
- The woman, undressed, is placed on the gynecological chair.
- The doctor with a viewing mirror and a special scapula makes scraping from the mucous membrane of the vaginal walls, urethra, cervix.
- The resulting smear is transferred onto a glass slide, after which it is sent to a laboratory, where a real-time PCR test is performed.
- The results of the analysis are transmitted to the doctor in 1–5 days.
With the help of PCR diagnostics, it is possible to detect even the minimum number of pathogens. The essence of the method lies in the fact that in the laboratory a certain part of the DNA molecule of the pathogen is isolated and multiplied. After that, you can accurately determine the type of microorganism. Thanks to this, it is possible to make the most effective treatment regimen.
Interpretation of results
Deciphering the analysis for florotsenoz - a complex process that must be carried out by a doctor of relevant specialization. Upon completion of the study, a conclusion is issued, which reflects the concentration of all key microorganisms found, which allows you to correctly make a diagnosis and choose treatment tactics.
We already know what microorganisms phloocenosis helps to reveal. It is considered normal if, opposite to the names of pathogens (gonococci, chlamydia, mycoplasma, trichomonads) the result is “not detected”. Even the smallest number suggests that the patient needs treatment.In addition, the pH of the sample should not exceed 4.5. Among the identified microorganisms in the majority should be lactobacilli.
When deciphering the phlorocenosis, the doctor correlates the concentrations of the detected harmful and beneficial bacteria, since their increase does not always indicate the presence of a pathological process. In this regard, self-interpretation of the results may lead to erroneous conclusions, it must be entrusted to a specialist.
According to statistics, the following diseases are most often diagnosed in women:
- Candidiasis. Its more common name is thrush. Manifested in the form of abundant, sometimes cheesy discharge, itching and burning.
- Bacterial vaginosis. Its characteristic feature is the discharge that has the smell of rotten fish. This violation of microflora requires special treatment, since it can lead to serious consequences.
- Aerobic vaginitis. Symptoms of the disease are similar to signs of candidiasis. Only timely diagnosis can detect pathology.
- Sexually transmitted infections. The most serious group of diseases that is a danger to both health and life.
The analysis of flora can be paid for a fee in both private and public medical institutions. Regarding whether this or that clinic or hospital provides this service, it is necessary to specify directly in the registry. The price of the study varies from 1300–2300 rubles. It depends on the region and the pricing policy of the institution.
Today, women are increasingly diagnosed with a violation of the microflora of the vagina and the presence of urogenital infections. Until recently, to pass a comprehensive survey, it was necessary to pass a lot of tests. A few years ago, Russian scientists developed the "Florocenosis" test, which allows to detect all pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms in a biomaterial at once. With the help of this type of analysis, it became possible in the shortest possible time to identify any disease of the reproductive system and promptly start its treatment.