Aggression is .. The concept of aggression, types, causes, manifestations, diagnosis, treatment of children and adults
In the daily reports are constantly flashed events that occur due to human aggressiveness. In the daily life of anyone accompanied by quarrels, conflicts, screams and so on. In modern realities, aggression is perceived as a negative phenomenon, and therefore subject to condemnation. However, this does not affect the existence of enemy groups.
In order to understand how to restrain aggression, it is necessary to more fully understand the reasons for its occurrence, as well as the very concept.
What is aggression?
In order to understand the concept of “aggression”, it is necessary to analyze this term. In psychology, this phenomenon is the commission of destructive actions that can harm both psychological and physical objects or living beings.
If we consider the analyzes of various scientists, it should be noted - aggression is called not only the specific behavior, but also the state of a person.
The famous psychotherapist Sigmund Freud noted that this phenomenon is the predisposition of each object. The higher it is, the greater will be the tendency to display aggression. Therefore, the described reaction can be considered natural for various kinds of stress and provoking factors. Aggression can be destructive as well as constructive. In the first case, it is responsive, and in the second, it allows a person to preserve his individuality, assert himself, or increase his self-esteem. Besides that, aggression is a way to relieve tension.
The described phenomenon can be both an emotional manifestation and an indicator of social behavior. Aggression can be called any action that is capable of harm in any way. A victim can be an inanimate object or a person (animal).
Some psychologists put aggression on a level with cruelty, but you need to understand that not every action with the described phenomenon can be classified as serious.Aggressiveness is perceived as a property of the individual, when a person is able to perform any such actions in the framework of protecting his interests and in order to achieve certain results.
This phenomenon can be considered in two versions: a form of hostility and a characteristic of adaptability. In the first case, a person will be offended by everyone, plotting quarrels or fights, delivering destructive “blows”. In the second version, the person tries to protect himself, his rights and preserve independence.
Thus, aggressiveness can be considered as a negative phenomenon, as well as a condition that allows a person to develop and be realized. Any leader needs to have at least a small share of aggression in order to control others.
As mentioned above, the manifestation of aggression should be considered in two aspects. One of them is the desire to cause harm, and the second is a need that allows you to develop harmoniously.
The scientific literature indicates that in the absence of aggressiveness a person can become passive and, as a result, his personality will be erased, and existence will become unbearable.This phenomenon is in every person, but it has a different level and features. How strong the aggression, as well as how long it lasts, depends entirely on many nuances. Such negative phenomena should also be considered by the factors that affect a person, that is, situational, psychological, physiological, and so on. To this it must be added that aggression is a person’s reaction to any dissatisfaction connected with the surrounding reality. It may be hidden or explicit, direct or indirect, passive or active, verbal or physical. Consider the classification of such actions. There are 5 different forms.
Forms of aggression
Consider in more detail the types of aggression.
- There is a physical. It is the manifestation of power to any living organism.
- The indirect form suggests that the person behaves aggressively not in relation to the cause of irritation. These emotions manifest in the direction of the other. Sometimes a person in such a situation may express aggression, slamming the door, tapping the table, and so on.
- Verbal aggression is manifested by shouts and quarrels, and often people use swearing, obscene words, threats, and so on.
- Negativism is characterized by the fact that there is an aggressive behavior towards older people, as well as to their social status. That is, in this case, the outbreak of aggression will manifest itself only in the direction of authority.
- The last form is a person's tendency to irritation. That is, the object becomes aggressive even with the smallest degree of excitability: it is very quick-tempered, sharp and rude.
Any aggression, as a rule, manifests itself due to some factors. They provoke a person to the occurrence of such a reaction. Should consider the main reasons that may be.
- Features of character, temperament.
- Factors of behavioral, social, psychological type and so on.
- Hatred, which manifests itself in relation to moral convictions, as well as an attempt to aggressively establish their ideals in society.
Description of provoking factors
In order to fight against aggression, it is necessary to know which factors contribute to the increase in the level of this phenomenon.Consider them separately.
- Behavioral. We are talking about actions that are aimed at stopping human development. This should also include the lack of desire for self-development, as well as such difficulties as vandalism or the purposelessness of existence itself.
- Social. On a person can influence factors such as politics, the economy of the state itself. In the case when a cult of violence or hostility is manifested in society, as well as some things, the media begin to be strongly promoted by the media, anyone can show aggression. It should also be noted the influence of people who surround a person, and still a low social position in society itself.
- Personality factors. It is about the nature of man. For example, aggressive will be the one who has increased anxiety, irritability, depression, developmental problems, self-esteem, with the expression of emotions, gender roles, there are various dependencies, difficulties in communicating in society.
- Situational. These should include the conditions of temperature and climate type, the influence of culture, stressful situations, the expectation of any revenge or attack of aggression from another person.
Manifestations in different age categories
The way a person manifests his aggressiveness depends on a large number of factors. Among them, individual development, age category, experience, nervous system, as well as the impact of the above nuances on human life should be noted. A special role in ascertaining the causes of aggression is assigned to the educational system and social environment. At different ages, aggressiveness can manifest itself in different ways.
- When it comes to babies, they cry, scream, do not smile, do not want to get in touch with their parents. In addition, the child may harm the younger and animals.
- In preschool age, the manifestation of aggression becomes more diverse. Children use not only crying and crying, but they can also bite, spit, use offensive words and so on. As a rule, at this age, such a reaction is only impulsive.
- School aggression is often manifested as causing harm to weak children. They can mock others, exert pressure, scoff and get into fights.
- In adolescence, aggressiveness may manifest itself due to peer exposure.As a rule, at this age, this phenomenon is a way to establish itself in the team, as well as take a special place in society. It should be noted that often aggression in adolescents occurs not only because of the situation in which he fell, but also is considered a manifestation of character.
- Separately, it is necessary to note the appearance of aggressiveness already in adulthood, since more factors will affect a person, given that the character is already formed. It is necessary to highlight the presence of fear, which is aimed at the fact that society can not accept and not recognize, strong irritability, impulsiveness, suspicion, and dependence on various signs. Such people, as a rule, experience only fear and resentment. They are not able to feel guilt and responsibility. It is also very difficult for them to adapt in a new society.
It is necessary to figure out what provokes aggression in the child and adults. The most significant conditions that form such a manifestation, you need to highlight the influence of the media, family factors, aggression from others, as well as individual, age and sex characteristics.
With regards to the media, in psychology, this factor is questionable. Consider conditions that can cause aggression in a child or adult.
Why do negative emotions appear? There are several reasons for this:
- that which the mass media propagandizes is accepted by man as a manifestation of aggression;
- accepting yourself as a negative hero from a movie or movie;
- identifying oneself as an object capable of harming a victim;
- The situations shown are too realistic. They can significantly influence the emotional sphere of a person.
It is very important to correctly diagnose aggression in order to completely overcome it. Considering the fact that this phenomenon is developed differently in each person, it is necessary to accurately study all the features of the psycho-type of a particular patient. It is necessary not only to observe the behavior, but also to make a diagnosis, consisting of various techniques. They will allow not only to understand the whole situation from the subjective side, but also to objectively confirm the results that have been identified.
From a medical point of view, it is rather difficult to consider internal aggressiveness, since most of the methods are aimed only at identifying external manifestations.At the moment, doctors use the Bass-Darki questionnaire, Assinger's test, as well as some other techniques. They make it possible to understand what a person feels and what are the causes of aggression. Consider separately each method.
- Test Assinger. It is necessary in order to identify aggression in the relationship. Thanks to him, you can figure out what level of negative emotions a person has when talking to someone else. Thus, it becomes clear whether communication is easy for him, how he builds contacts with other people, and so on.
- Test Eysenk. Thanks to him, you can check the mental state of the patient. There are 4 scales. They describe various states of the psyche: frustration, anxiety, rigidity and direct aggression.
- Questionnaire Bass-Darki. It consists of 8 scales and allows you to determine what kind of aggression a person dominates. You can also understand by counting the index, how pronounced hostility.
It should be noted that these techniques are not universal. Therefore, to understand only one test, why aggression in a person appears too often, will not work. Diagnostics should always consist of a whole complex, which allows us to speak about real results.
It is impossible to talk about the complete cure of aggressiveness, because it is not a disease. This phenomenon is a property of the personality that can be amplified or, conversely, suppressed. It all depends on self-awareness, self-regulation and the characteristics of a particular person. Scientists also talk about the influence of genetic conditions on the formation of aggression. However, it still depends more on social communication skills, as well as on those factors that affect a person every day. Therefore, for the treatment of manifestations of aggression in a child or an adult, it is important to use corrective methods. They reduce the level of hostility. It should be noted that the manifestation of such an emotion is not an inevitable form of the psyche's response to various difficulties.
It has long been proven: if you work on yourself correctly and create comfortable conditions for your existence, you can not only learn how to control such attacks, but also completely stop their occurrence. Correction of aggressiveness can be carried out by a psychologist or a psychotherapist. A psychiatrist should be contacted if the aggression of adolescents or more adults has reached a critical situation where a person is capable of harming himself or other living creatures.
Hypnosis, psychodrama, psychoanalysis, training programs, as well as autogenic training should be noted among the main methods of struggle.
Many psychologists consider training to be very interesting, which allows a person to learn how to communicate in society and acquire certain skills. On it, an expert models situations in which it is maximally shown that a person can calmly respond to any conflict or the manifestation of aggressiveness on the part of other people. Role-playing games are arranged, which allows you to experience various stressful situations with maximum safety for the human psyche. The training also teaches how to transfer acquired skills and abilities into your life.
What to do with an aggressive child?
It should be understood that aggression is an emotion that children often experience. The main step in dealing with it - attention to the child. If parents know their child well, then they can prevent sudden flashes. If we are talking about physical aggression - it will be easier to suppress it than verbal. When a child begins to express his emotions in any way, he must be distracted. You can come up with some interesting activity.If the child began to harm another, then for such it should be punished.
When a baby does not understand that he needs to stop, it is recommended to explain the error to the maximum available to him and give punishment. In this case, the object of hostility must be surrounded by attention and care. Then the child will understand that his behavior is losing and he will not achieve the desired result.
At first, he will show more aggression, refuse to clean up after himself, follow the advice, and so on, but after a while he realizes that such tactics are unprofitable. It is important to let the child know that he is responsible for his actions, including aggression. After the child has performed the necessary actions that were taken as punishment, he should be encouraged.
Games for aggressive kids
Aggression is a negative phenomenon that needs to be stopped on time. If we are talking about a child with a too impulsive and hot-tempered character, then you should come up with methods to help him fight aggression. Psychologists recommend choosing those exercises that will allow him to understand that it is not necessary to mock the younger ones in order to throw out emotions.You can engage with the child using games. A good option would be to buy a punching bag, knock out pillows, run or practice on the playground (in the section). The child can put in his pocket the paper that he will tear during stress. This is how the baby will be able to eliminate his negative emotions and stop projecting them onto the younger ones.
Information for consideration
As a result, it is necessary to emphasize everything that was written above. Aggression is considered to be the manifestation of a person’s character, which can be perceived both in a positive light and in a negative light. This phenomenon allows leaders to maintain credibility. Aggression also makes it possible to control people. Thanks to her, you can establish yourself in society. However, it is good only in moderation.
At the moment, negative emotions in society are manifested quite often. This affects the development in young children of an unconscious desire to display their feelings in an aggressive form. To prevent negative situations, you need to deal with this phenomenon. You should contact a psychologist. The sooner this happens, the better. This is due to the fact that it is easier to suppress aggression only when it begins to manifest itself, than after the formed perception of the world.Only through the implementation of corrective measures can prevent various problems in society.
Human psychology is a rather complex concept, and aggression is considered a negative manifestation of character. It is necessary to fight it in order not to conflict with the world and communicate normally with society.