A poster is what? Value and types of posters
In the modern world, a poster is something familiar,with which a person encounters several times a day and therefore has already learned not to react to it. However, only 100 years ago this thing was a curiosity and forced everyone who sees it, to die in admiration and believe everything that was written on it. How did the poster appear? What is it? What types of posters exist? Let's find out about this.
The meaning of the word "poster"
First of all, it is necessary to understand the definition of the noun.
A poster is called an advertising or agitational image, accompanied by a small text or a short slogan. As a rule, posters are produced in large formats, starting from A3.
Sometimes they are called posters or posters.
Typically, such images are attached to the walls and doors of buildings or on specially designated places. Some fans of posters past their homes.
In a narrower sense, this word means a specific kind of graphics.
Also this noun was named one of thethe most famous propaganda publishing houses of the USSR, which existed from the mid-1970s through 2006. Throughout this time, the "Poster" specialized not only in the production of the same name, but also in printing postcards, portraits, photographs, etc.
The etymology of the term in question
Having learned the answer to the question: "What is this - a poster?", It is worth considering the origin of this noun.
For the first time in Russian, this word was recorded in 1704. However, it was actively used only in the late XIX century.
In Russian it came from Latin, from French and German. At the end of the Roman Empire, citizens often used the term placatum, which they called ads.
A few centuries later, the plaquer verb plaquer was formed in the French language ("sticking something"). And he, in turn, contributed to the appearance of the verbal noun placard.
From the French, the term was borrowed by the Germans and slightly modified - das Plakat. It was in this form that this noun turned out to be in Russian and has survived to this day.
It is worth noting an interesting fact: in France today the term placard is used extremely rarely, instead of it the word affich is actual. And in English-speaking countries he is called a poster.
An image of this kind has a number of special features that distinguish it among other printing products.
First of all, this is the purpose for which it is created: attract the attention of others and inform them about something. In this connection posters and inscriptions on them are usually made large and bright. In addition, they use a minimum of text, so as not to bother observers with a long reading and give them the opportunity to quickly understand the meaning.
As a rule, the inscription on the poster is a memorable slogan (often with an element of humor or wordplay) and the name of the product or service for which this image is made aware.
History of poster appearance
Informative agitation bills for the first time began to be used by mankind in Ancient Egypt. True, at that time posters served to catch fugitive slaves.
The Greeks and Romans were more practical and cultured. They used leaflets with drawings and text to inform about trade offers, as well as posters for the theater.
The first poster (in the modern sense of it) waspainted by order of a British book dealer Batdold in 1482, the businessman with his help tried to advertise a new edition of "Euclidean geometry."
After that posters appeared for several centuriesquite rare. However, in the middle of the XIX century. French lithographer Jules Shere decided to develop the idea of Batdold. In 1866, he opened his own workshop in Paris, specializing in the production of posters. The company Shere was a huge success. For a couple of years he created more than a thousand bright posters inviting to visit performances or exhibitions. Each of his posters - it was a real work of art, and all of them were done by hand. By the way, it was Shere laid the main principles of the art of decorating posters, which have not lost their relevance today.
By the end of the XIX century. posters have become an integral part of any important event. At the same time, they began to be used not as posters, but for advertising of some goods or services.
Residents of the Russian Empire in these years is quitewell knew what a poster is. This was due to the fact that in the last decades of the XIX century. the creation of promotional images has become very popular in the empire. This is evidenced by the fact that in this period it was in Russia that the World Exhibition of Posters and Posters was held.
With the beginning of the troubled XX century, advertising images were actively used for political agitation. And the pioneers in this matter again became the French.
The use of politicalposter after the outbreak of the First World War. To encourage young men to volunteer for the front, and also to agitate citizens financially to help the state, thousands of posters were printed and painted in all countries of Europe.
After the Revolution of 1917 in the territory of the former empire for several years only one type of propaganda images was created - a political poster. Its meaning was well understood by all heads of state, so often such products were issued for the last money, instead of giving them to the starving citizens.
With the beginning of the Second World Anti-Fascist posters began to be printed all over the world. The closer it was to victory over Hitler Germany, the more optimistic they became.
After the establishment of peace in Europe, the majoritycountries (including the USSR) were able to again focus on building their own economies. From this period to this day, advertising posters, as well as images relating to acute social problems (drunkenness, drug addiction, crime), informative announcements (about healthy nutrition, daily routine, vaccinations, etc.) are becoming especially popular.
Types of posters by purpose
Having understood the meaning and history of the term in question, it is worth paying attention to its varieties. So, what are the posters for the purpose of their creation?
- Advertising. This category also includes theater and movie posters, announcements of exhibitions, seminars, etc.
- Informational. They do not call for anything, just talk about something. Typically, these posters have a lot of text and several images. These include monographic posters.
- Educational. Specifically designed as a methodical guide, contributing to better information assimilation.
- Instructive. In a concise and most understandable form give information about the rules of behavior in different places and with dangerous devices.
- Political. They are the main way of agitation during the elections.
Types of posters by the way they are created
Also, information images differ in the way they were made.
- Hand-drawn. The most ancient and laborious kind of posters. Today it is almost replaced by graphic editors, which allow to draw a poster on a computer, and then print it.
- Screen-silkscreen. Such posters were made using a set of stencils, which did not require their creator special artistic skills.
- Printed. The most common and simple method of creating information and advertising images. Today, he successfully ousted all other methods.